Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Factors Affecting Performance Management Systems Business Essay - Free Essay Example

In order to achieve common recognition of work prospects, areas and opportunities that exist for the growth of the employees as well as for the organization by appraising performance outcomes, an evolving concept of performance management is on the rise. Performance management is a systematic process that links means that enable organizations to foster a common image related to the goals set by the organization and in providing direction to workers so that they can comprehend and preserve for both, individual as well as companys performance (Holton, 2002). According to (Salem, 2003) , performance management can be stated as a methodology that is integrative and orderly for the purpose of enlightening organizational performance that encourages a philosophy focused towards the attainment of planned aims, mission, vision and principles. More precisely, it is concerned with evaluating the performance of workforces so that development can be carried in by relating suitable assessment and rewards for the efforts of the employees and by simplifying the flow of communication, boosting learning prospects and explicatory work engagements (Salem, 2003). OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Lockett has underlined a number of performance managements goals. They are as follows: The main aim of performance management is to facilitate the workforce of an organization to achieve higher standards of performing their job responsibilities. Performance management enables the employees to improve the level of their current performance by authorizing, encouraging and executing an operative reward mechanism. Facilitating smooth flow of communication so that potentials regarding roles, tasks, reporting are simplified between the managers and the employees. It enables the communication of corporate, business and functional goals alongside providing a systematic and apparent opinion about performance of the employee. Ensures constant supervision and coaching. The key aim for performance management is to identify and resolve the barriers that prevent effective performance. This can be done by way of providing instructions, active governance, close monitoring and change interventions. Building a foundation for numerous organizational assessments deliberate arrangements, succession planning, advancements and rewards linked with performance. Providing employees with the opportunity to prosper by exploiting the opportunities that exist so as to achieve personal growth and improvement in their career (Lockett, 1992). FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: For performance management system to be implemented, there are a number of conditions that must exist prior to its execution. These factors include: Ability of manager to mobilize the organization. Effectively communicating the roles, duties and responsibilities of all such individuals who are the participants in the process of bringing about change. Transparency and Simplicity Practicality and Participation Equality and Objectivity (Amatayakul, 2005). STYLE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT In the views of Joseph R. Grima, performance management should be: Participative: Performance management is a two way process and must encourage the participation of both supervisor and employee. This participation should be there for establishing objectives at the very start of the assessment period and at the end, evaluating results. Task-oriented: Performance should be measured on the basis of business objectives and the outcomes, personal traits and pre-defined areas and targets. Developmental: The process should be implemented not only to evaluate and rate employees but also to help the employees to advance their future career paths by way of personal growth and development. It should also identify the areas where employee needs further training (Grima, 2000). It is essential for performance management system to be participative, task-oriented as well as developmental. If the performance management system of an organization doesnt provides the employees opportuniti es to learn and develop when deficiencies from the results are identified, than such system is of no use. The main focus of performance management is to identify and to address vital people issues that exist in an organization. It leads towards building relationship with the people employed by the organization. It creates an environment or work setting that enables the employed people to best perform the abilities that they possess (Heathfield, 2012). PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT MODEL An integrated model of performance management is presented by (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005) pg #421. For effective implementation of performance management, it is important to consider three appropriate factors that exist in the larger organizational perspective and affects performance organization wide. These factors include: Business Strategy: It includes internal and external environment within which the company operates. It also includes all those policies, procedures, plans, objectives, environment that enables an organization to compete in the most successful manner and the focus that organization has on effective performance of its employees. Workplace Technology: Workplace technology has a huge impact on performance of individuals and groups. It depends upon whether the technology is high or low in interdependence. In case technology is highly interdependent, work structures are preferably designed for work groups rather than individuals and performance management in such a case is aimed at work group behavior (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Employee Involvement: Level of involvement depends upon the control that exists in an organization varying from bureaucratic to flexible. Organizations rigid controls discourage participation and the setting of goals, appraisal of performance are formalized and inflexibly administered by management. On the other hand, when organizations are supportive and flexible, participation from employees is encouraged, sense of ownership increases and performance management becomes a two way process for employees as well as for the employer (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). GOAL SETTING: Goal setting specifies the acceptable level of performance. It is a two way process in which employee and the employer establishes and gain understanding of the goals set for the employee to achieve. Goal setting involves: Establishing challenging goals: An organization should set goals by encouraging participation from the employees, setting challenging and clear goals that are specifically defined and realistic (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Clarifying goal measurement: When the goals set by the organization are specific, each employee has a clear understanding of what is expected from him. However to achieve clarity in goal measurement, goals should be operationally defined (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Management by objectives: Another way of setting goals is by way of management by objectives (MBO); focusing on alignment of personal goals with the business strategy by facilitating the flow of communication between the manager and the subordinate and by unificat ion of conflicts where it exists(Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). . This process of MBO can be implemented by following the below mentioned steps: Step1: Group along with individual goals is defined and action plans are developed for the achievement of the set goals. Step2: Job duties, responsibilities and accountabilities are stated so that the individual has a clear understanding of what is to be done and what not. Step3: A course of action for the execution of goals is determined known as action plans. Step4: At this stage, the acceptable criteria for success and performance are agreed upon between the manager and the subordinate. This has to be a two way process so that a mutual understanding of goals and success criteria is achieved. Step5: From time to time, manager reviews the performance of the subordinate or in other words review the progress of the work assigned. This step can be broken down into three sub-steps. First step is when the subordinate takes the initiative to talk with the manager about the opportunities, hurdles, achievements accomplished. Second step is when manager initiates a dialogue or meeting with the subordinate to discuss about the work plans for the future. In the last step, coaching and analysis usually takes place. Step6: All the documents related to goal setting, success criterion, priorities, rewards and due dates are forwarded to a senior management (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Discussing and reviewing the performance of an employee in context of the tasks and responsibilities assigned to him as part of his job. Appraisal is based on job performance rather than personal characteristics of an employee. It provides an employee with the chance of identifying areas that needs improvement and also directs as to what are the strengths to capitalize on and weaknesses to avoid (Lee, 2007). Process of performance appraisal: According to (Egan, 1995), the process of performance appraisal is as follows: Establishing standards: First and foremost step in performance appraisal process is to set standards based upon which actual and desired performance can be compared. For this purpose, the standards set should be simple, clear and measureable. Communicating standards: Standards set but not well communicated will be of no use. Thus it is essential that the employees must be communicated about the set standards so that they have a clear idea as to what is expected of them (Egan, 1995). Measuring actual performance: This stage in the process of performance appraisal is the most difficult because to quantify the level of actual performance is complex. Appropriate measurement tools must be selected so that the performance measured is objective and realistic (Egan, 1995). Comparing actual with preferred performance: This comparison is important so that deviation from preferred performance is quantif ied. If the actual performance is below the desired level, result is negative deviation (Egan, 1995). Discussing results: Upon comparing the actual with the preferred performance, the result of the comparison whether it is positive or negative is communicated to the employee. Employer also pays attention as to why this deviation is taking place. At this stage, pragmatic solutions are determined and evaluated with each employee individually (Egan, 1995). Decision making: At this stage, decision is made i.e. what needs to be done in order to improve the performance and what corrective actions need to be taken. Performance appraisal must be consistent, timely, precise and conventional to users, focused on important control points and economically realistic (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). REWARD SYSTEM: The importance of designing and implementing reward systems in organization is increasing at a rapid pace. It is a matter of common observation that when employee performs a good job, they expect to receive some kind of reward in turn. Thus reward system of any organization plays an important role in motivating employees towards performance (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005).Following are some of the reward systems: Job Based: According to this system, pay structure is designed in which salary schedules are determined according to the position range based upon responsibilities and tasks assigned. This system minimizes the likelihood of probable biased pay practices (Kokemuller, 2007). Performance Based: It is important for this kind of system to be successful, performance must be linked with the rewards that individuals receive such as for good performances salary may increase, a bonus may be rewarded (Thomas J. Atchison, 2010). Skill and Knowledge-Based Pay System: Accordin g to this system, employees must be rewarded according to the knowledge, skills and abilities that they possess often called skills inventory. As employees are paid on this basis, it results in increased motivation, improved productivity, lower absenteeism and turnover (Paren, 1994). Gain Sharing Systems: This is a form of remuneration. It offers a good deal for both employer as well as employee. Since employer are willing to negotiate deals in terms of improved performance and employees are willing to negotiate deals in terms of fair returns for their efforts (Bowey, 2008). Promotion Systems: This system enables employees to grow their position and acquire higher-status positions in the organization. Nowadays, open job posting has become a norm and enables employees who believe in their abilities to suggest their names (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: At times the best considered performance management system is subject to collapse if it is improperly managed. Fraser has provided a number of guidelines for improving the performance management system and is as follows: An article for the purpose of internal affairs such as an internal manual should be produced that explains the PM system and must be done on consistent basis. The employees must have a clear idea as to how PM system works and must be able to understand its connection with their individual performance. In order to bring in efficiency and to avoid potential biases, senior management should be trained in this regard. Good performance should be recorded in a formal document and be rewarded accordingly. On the other hand, poor performance should be recorded and opportunities to improve must be offered alongside monitoring whether improved performance is evident or not. Key performance indicators should be developed that are simple and clear to the employe es. Most importantly, organizations should avoid developing too many key performance indicators otherwise the focus on important issues can be abstracted (Fraser, 2007). CONCLUSION With reference to the above mentioned sources, we can conclude that the integrated process of performance management aims to identify, assess and strengthen employee work behaviors and outcomes. Involvement of the employees of the organization is crucial to make the performance management system a success. Goal setting, performance appraisal and reward systems form part of the performance management system. Organizations who dont emphasize on the effectiveness of performance management system fails to understand the importance of employee involvement and all those benefits resulting for the employer as well as for the employee. For a company to be a success in the long run, a well designed and implemented performance management system should exist in the organization.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Single Parent Household Where Does the Problem Begin - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 660 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Single Parent Essay Did you like this example? Some social influences include diminished social capital for children, education, social economic factors, possible health and psychological concerns, the banning of fathers, and abuse of mothers. This article provides the reasons of why single parents kids struggle the most in finding success. Applications will be presented that describe impacts of single-parent households on general society. Issues will be offered that present an impression of the welfares of the single-parent household. A inference will be existing that supports the need for upcoming research into each of the variables composing the single-parent home. The Single-Parent Household The number of single-parent families in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s. Moreover, the fastest growing family type in the United States is the single-parent family, which by 2010 established about 30 percent of all families with offspring, according to the 2012 US Census Statistical Abstract. Single-mother households with children signified more than 8 million homes or approximately 79 percent of single-parent families. In addition, the number of single-father households more than tripled between the time of 1980 and 2010. In 1980, single-father families made up roughly 2 percent of all families with offspring, with less than 700,000 households. By 2010, the number of single-father homes had reached 2.2 million, or about 6 percent of relations with offspring. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Single Parent Household: Where Does the Problem Begin?" essay for you Create order Children are incapable of choosing the circumstances of their childhood and adolescence. It is where ever they are birthed where they will find their own opportunities. Moreover, In researching the multiple impacts of the single-parent family, researchers have assessed the implications of parental achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, social competence, and health (p. 289) They further concluded that children and adolescents from single-parent households demonstrated higher propensity toward psychiatric disease, suicide or suicide attempt, injury and addiction contrasted with those in two-parent households. Specifically, boys in single-parent families had higher risks than girls for psychiatric disease and drug-related disease, and they also had a raised risk of all-cause mortality. Additional research indicates that the multiple impacts of single-parent households on children are many and multifaceted. Effect on Social Capital In addition, Findings were reported, they argued that the most prominent element of structural deficiency in modern families is the single-parent family. In his research, they identified the ideal situations in which social principal is collected in relation to family condition. He suggested that a number of influences linked to the industrialization and modernization of societies meant that the family in its modern form is low in social capital when compared with formations in earlier times (Seaman Sweeting, 2004, p. 175). To initiate further understanding, social capital has been described as a characteristic of the relations between people (Seaman Sweeting, 2004, p. 174). Social capital advantages occur when trust and mutuality allow for access to resources such as human and cultural capital that already exist within the community or social network. Bourdieu described social capital as both a quality and quantity of relationships: first, the social relationship itself that allow s individuals to claim access to resources controlled by their associates, and second, the amount and quality of these resources In this understanding, social capital is something controlled by individuals that gains its strength in the aggregate of social networks (Seamen Sweeting, 2004, p. 174). Research into social principal and young commons outcomes also emphases on education. They presented data showing higher school drop-out rates for pupils with a single parent, several siblings and no maternal college expectations (Seamen Sweeting, 2004, p. 176). The Two-Parent Family Advantage Adolescents who receive parenting that simultaneously protects them from neighborhood dangers and cultivates opportunities outside the neighborhood can avoid negative outcomes. Through providing adolescents with consistent expressive support and discipline, effective supervision, and close expressive ties, unified families can often overcome district are disadvantages. Moreover, Saylor, Boyce, and Price (2003) indicated that family variables in the first months of a kids life including low income, single-parent home, and high parenting stress were significantly correlated with conduct problems appearing at 7.5 years of age (p. 175, Abstract). Its concluded that having two parents could help with lowering this percentage and lowering the later behavior some kids have.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mrs. Pelton s Biology Class Cheating Essay - 819 Words

In my reaction to the article about Mrs. Pelton’s biology class cheating, I believe that the school district was in the wrong by making Mrs. Pelton change her grading. The town of Piper, Kansas is only about 20 minutes away from Kansas City; I am from Olathe, Kansas which is about 30 minutes away from Kansas City. Both of these cities are suburbs of Kansas City but with two different ways they handle parents complaining about teachers. These so called parents in this article demanded the school board is to change the way teachers grade their classes. Mrs. Pelton was a teacher at Piper High School in Piper, KS. She taught a biology class which had a long term assessment that included collecting samples from trees in the local area and writing a report on what they have found. Pelton was very adamant about students not plagiarizing. She made both parents and students sign a contract which outlined in rule number seven ‘Cheating and plagiarism will result in the failure of the assignment. It is expected that all work turned in is completely their own.’ Mrs. Pelton even went on record saying what her version of plagiarism is ‘It is copying things word for word and using it as your own material.’ When the end of the school year came around students started to hand in their assessments. Mrs. Pelton notices that the students have handed assessment that were not fully their own work. She wanted to back up her accusations by turning to website called â€Å" a new Web

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Contemporary Issues In Accounting Conceptual-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: What Is The Contemporary Issues In Accounting Conceptual? Answer: Introduction JetStar is considered as a brand of Qantas Airways, which is known to be supreme in the low-cost airline operating division in Australia. It is responsible for carrying more than 8.5% of passengers alone in the country. The main operations are seen to extend from home to international network with its destined airport in Melbourne. The main tie-ups have been identified in terms of Airbus A320 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner ( 2017). Virgin Australia Airline established in 1999 is considered as the predecessor of Qantas Airways. The main operation of the airline company is based in Bowen Hills in Brisbane. The main operations of the aircraft are seen to be based on a single route. So far Virgin Australia has been able to expand itself across 29 cities including some of the most noted one such as Brisbane, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney ( 2017). The main intention of the study is to show the current accounting framework and examine whether the current accounting standards comply with the requirement prescribed by AASB. The report has also check whether for the companys financial reporting shows the conceptualization of prudence. The important source to consider the evaluation has been done based on intangible assets, tangible assets, the precision method and various findings from the annual general meeting report. The latter part of the study has been able to highlight on the reason of shareholders investing in the companies Conceptual framework of Accounting for both the companies Both JetStar and Virgin Australia Airlines compliance with the conceptual framework has been identified with AASB and Corporations Act 2001. The financial statements of both the companies are further seen to be prepared as per IFRS norms. The aforementioned standards have been seen to be issued by the International Accounting Board. In the progression of the financial statements of both Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia Airlines it has been discerned that they have followed historical cost evaluation except in areas where assets and liabilities needs to be assessed at fair value. The exception is in further noted in areas where these are considered as per accounting policies. The revenue recognitions conceptual framework has been prepared with per AASB 118 Revenue, AASB 111 Construction Contracts and Interpretation 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes. Despite of this, the companies are set to replace the standards with AASB 15 Revenue from contracts with the customers in the annual report of the company on or after 1st January 2018. The main determination of the existing AASB 117 for leases and revise the framework based on AASB 16. AASB 136: Impairment of Assets has been further noted to be applicable for impairment of assets and the financial guarantees are taken into consideration as per AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Prudence theory applied in both the companies The general theory of application of prudence has been seen to overestimate the amount of revenues. Both the airline companies have been seen to apply the concept of prudence in their financial reporting. This particular aspect is evident with the conservative nature of asset recording and non-underestimation of the liabilities. The financial statements has been further seen to be based on private transactions and considered every aspect of prudence theory. The delay in the acceptability of the new accounting standards has further depicted compliance with this theory (Lipka 2013). It has been seen that the company has not adopted applied AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (AASB 15) and AASB 16 Leases (AASB 16), as it has not been able to get the viability of replacing the existing standards that is AASB 118 Revenue. The process of dealing the recognition of the new standards has been seen by setting their adoption date on or after 1 January 2018 for the revenues and on or after 1 January 2019 for the new standards of leases. Some of the other aspects of prudence has been identified with regular review of the assets and check the reason for declining values of these assets. Typically the most vital component of prudence with both the companies has been identified with not writing down of the fixed assets value (Berger 2016). Criteria followed for financial data Total Assets- Based on the annual report and analysis published by both the companies in 2016 it has been observed that the total assets of Qantas Airways were $ 17708 m in 2016. The total assets of Virgin Australia Airlines stood at $ 6886.9 m in 2016. In addition to this, the contingent liabilities have not seen to be present for Virgin Australia airlines as at 30 June 2016. With respect to Qantas Airways Ltd the total amount of assets has been seen to be measured based on fair value less selling cost. The different types of net benefits of Qantas Airways have been further measured as a fair value of plant assets less the present value. Some of the various types of different considerations in the preparation of financial statements of Virgin Australia have been based on assets which are held under financial leases and recognised as per fair value (Rossing 2013). Tangible Assets and Intangible Assets- The various types of considerations for tangible and intangible assets for Qantas Airways has been classified under revenue generation and the total recoverable amount of the same. The considerations of intangible assets are further seen to be based on impairment losses less cost. The different types of methods for determining the amortisation has been further seen to consider that the useful life and residual life is evaluated as at reporting date. Assets having indefinite lives are not held for consideration as impairment is done on annual basis (Krieger and Mayrhofer 2016). Depreciation Qantas Group has recognised reputation as per straight-line method for its valuation of property plant and equipment. The exception is seen to prevail for freehold land. The deposition rates imposed on these assets are seen to be calculated on total valuation costs, the residual lives and the estimated useful lives. The aforementioned depreciation rates on the assets are charged on the date of acquisition. The particular assets which are held under financial leases and appreciated provided the company is having the ownership (Wang and Li 2015). Virgin Airlines has taken into consideration the amortisation of the assets based on date they are held for sale. The specific depreciation charged on PPE has been further seen to state cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Similar to Qantas Airways the deposition of assets for Virgin Airlines is also seen to be considered on straight-line method for determining its useful life of assets ( 2017). Rationale for the shareholders investing in the companies The main considerations of the directors statement have been able to show the reason why an investor should look forward to invest in both the companies. It is an further seen that based on the report published by Virgin Airlines, the revenue of the company has jumped from$4,749.2 million to $5,021.0 million. The comparative period for the total equity has been able to account for 60% of the profits accumulated from Tigerair Australia on 16 October 2014. The investors need to particularly be aware of the increasing net operating expenditure which is considered as a downside for Virgin airlines. The aforementioned consideration has been seen to be conducive in making investment decision in both the airline companies (Kober, Lee and Ng 2013). In a similar way based on the CEOs statement published by Qantas Airways in 2016 it has been determined that the group has been significantly able to contribute to the overall value. The net increase in the financial performance has been evident with the increasing operating margin which has been further recognised in terms of increasing operating margin from the Jetstar Group, Qantas Loyalty, Qantas International and Qantas Domestic. It has been further observed that more than two thirds of the total earnings of Qantas Airways are based on the international operations, loyalty programs and portfolio strategy. The investors should be particularly looking forward to the increasing PBT of $ 975 m in 2015 to $ 1532 in 2016. Based on the financial report analysis of both the companies, it has been seen that Jetstar (Qantas) is not only in better position in compared to Virgin Australia airlines but it is also cost efficient which makes it a better choice for the investor (Guthrie and Pan g 2013). Conclusion The various stages of discussions of the study have been able to state current accounting framework of Qantas Airways and Virgin Airlines. The report has been further able to examine whether the current accounting standards comply with the requirement prescribed by AASB. The report has also check whether for the companys financial reporting shows the conceptualization of prudence. JetStar and Virgin Australia Airlines compliance with the conceptual framework has been identified with AASB and Corporations Act 2001. Both the airline companies have been seen to apply the concept of prudence in their financial reporting. This particular aspect is evident with the conservative nature of asset recording and non-underestimation of the liabilities. The delay in the acceptability of the new accounting standards has further depicted compliance with the prudence theory. The investors should be particularly looking forward to the increasing PBT of $ 975 m in 2015 to $ 1532 in 2016 for Qantas. References Berger, L. (2016) The impact of ambiguity and prudence on prevention decisions, Theory and Decision, 80(3), pp. 389409. doi: 10.1007/s11238-015-9512-1. Guthrie, J. and Pang, T. T. (2013) Disclosure of goodwill impairment under aasb 136 from 2005-2010, Australian Accounting Review, 23(3), pp. 216231. doi: 10.1111/j.1835-2561.2013.00204.x. Kober, R., Lee, J. and Ng, J. (2013) GAAP, GFS and AASB 1049: Perceptions of public sector stakeholders, Accounting and Finance, 53(2), pp. 471496. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-629X.2012.00469.x. Krieger, M. and Mayrhofer, T. (2016) Prudence and prevention: an economic laboratory experiment, Applied Economics Letters, pp. 16. doi: 10.1080/13504851.2016.1158909. Lipka, D. (2013) The max U approach: Prudence only, or not even prudence? A Smithian perspective, Econ Journal Watch, 10(1), pp. 214. (2017).Our Company | Qantas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017]. (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017]. Rossing, J. P. (2013) Prudence and Racial Humor: Troubling Epithets, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31(4), pp. 115. doi: 10.1080/15295036.2013.864046. Wang, J. and Li, J. (2015) Precautionary Effort: Another Trait for Prudence, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 82(4), pp. 977983. doi: 10.1111/jori.12054. (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017].

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Population Ageing in Canada

Introduction Population ageing refers to the aspect of a society in which the number of the elderly people past the retirement age is continually increasing with respect to the total population. An ageing population is normally characterized by increased percentage of the categorized older people in a given society. This paper seeks to discuss the topic of population ageing in Canada.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Population Ageing in Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The paper will look into aspects of population ageing in Canada in terms of its causes and impacts as well as policies that should be considered in order to alleviate possible problems that the population ageing may cause in Canada. The Canadian Demography The structure of the Canadian demography is majorly determined by the country’s aspects of birth rate, mortality rates, life expectancy, emigration from the country and immigrations into the country. The birth rate and the total period fertility are statistical projections calculated from past records of a society. The two elements describe the average number of children that is expected of a woman in her lifetime. The trend in birth rate in Canada can be categorically described in three groups due to the similarity in past and projected patterns that is realized. The birth rates of women between the ages of twenty and twenty seven has a characteristic decreasing trend in the past observed data with a similarly decreasing trend which is almost stagnant in the projected statistics. The category of women ranging from twenty eight years old to thirty two years has experienced a decreasing trend in birth rate which however picked up in the year 2005 and is projected to increase in future. The other category is the age group of thirty three to thirty nine years who have experienced an increasing past trend in birth rate and a corresponding increasing projection in the future periods of time. The total period fertility of the country registered a decreasing trend up to the year 2001 before rising until the year 2010 with further projected increase. The average birth rate has been significantly low, decreasing from 1.7 percent in the early 1990s to almost one percent in the year 2003 before slightly increasing (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). The Canadian population is recorded to have a fair balance in terms of gender. The death rates in Canada also exhibit a trend that slightly varies across different ages. The death rate in Canada has fairly been constant at the age group of between thirty to thirty nine years. This rate is also projected to remain constant.Advertising Looking for essay on aging? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Age group between forty to fifty nine years has averagely experienced a reduced death rate which is projected to decrease over the future. However, the older generati on has over the past experienced a fluctuating death rate which retained the general decreasing tendency with a smoothly decreasing projection. The average death rate is significantly noted to be relatively higher in males than in females. The life expectancy in the country has on the other hand been constantly increasing with a corresponding increase in its projections. It is again notable that the life expectancy is relatively higher in women than in men through out the considered statistics (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). Emigration of Canadians as well as the number of those returning from foreign countries has been slightly fluctuating in the past years at less that two percent with a prediction of constant percentage figures. Immigration into the country has been oscillating with convergence to 0.7 percent at which it is projected to stabilize in future. The Canadian population is therefore identified to be majorly dependent on the birth rate and the life expectancy which is a fact or to mortality rate. The reduced birth rate towards the end of the twentieth century together with the generally increasing life expectancy reflects a threat to a shift in the demographic structure of the country with the tendency of an ageing population (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). Possible causes of the Ageing population in Canada The major determinants of the Canadian economy are identified to be the birth rate and the mortality rate with life expectancy determining the structure of the population. Studies under economics have revealed a paradox that contrary to the perception that improved national economies which is reflected in living standards and conditions should encourage and support higher rate of population increase, it has been noted that wealthy countries have been characterized by reduced number of children. It is recorded that the birth rates in developed countries have over the past years reduced from about eight percent to almost one percent in the current periods. This together with the increased life expectancy is significantly transforming the demographic patterns of these countries. A comparison of demographics indicates a transition in the structure and composition of populations.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Population Ageing in Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Four decades ago, the human development index was generally low across the globe with the highest possibly being realized in Canada at almost 0.9. The trend in Canada is realized to be characterized by reduced fertility rate under its high human development index. With the low fertility rates of almost one percent, the population of Canada is threatened by significant reduction since the rate is relatively lower that the mortality rates. The reduced birth rate has been a result of women empowerment that has witnessed their active engagement in employment activities. As a consequence, women moved to c ontrol their birth rates as a step to adjusting in their active role in economic activities. The result of the controlled birth rate is a shrinking population characterized by a relatively lower percentage of the young people in the country (Economist, 2009). Impacts of Ageing Population in Canada Population trend in Canada and many other developed countries has also shifted in terms of its relevance to the economies. In the early periods and up to the mid times of nineteenth century, when a number of countries started to introduce pension schemes, the life expectancies in variety of countries were generally low and people rarely reached old age. This view represented societies where every one was actively participating in the economy. The imminent impacts of the demographic change include the general reduction of the total population and the emergence of an economically less active population. The reduced population will as a result reduce the labor force in the economy leading to labor shortage. The shift in the population pattern also has the effect of reducing labor supply as the majority of the population will be too old to work, or even if they are fixed into the economy, they will not effectively yield the output that could have been realized from a younger employee. The impacts have not yet been felt, though expected to heavily impact the economy if no action is taken to avert the situation. Another significant problem is the expenditure on the elderly who will be economically passive and will depend on either government’s pension schemes or on family members for support (The Economist, 2009). Possible Policies to Alleviate Impacts of Ageing Population One of the possible measures of averting the imminent labor shortage in the future Canada, and any other country faced with the problem of an ageing population, is the importation of labor by encouraging immigration.Advertising Looking for essay on aging? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Solution could also be achieved through developing policies that will encourage women to have more children to increase the population of the young as well as recycling retirees into the economy (Economist, 2009). Conclusion The ageing population is evident in Canada. Caused by reduced birth rate and increased life expectancy, the changed demography is a threat to the country’s economy and necessary policies should be adopted to avert future labor shortage in Canada. References Dungan, P and Murphy, S. (2010). A Population Projection for Canada with an Updated Application to Health Care Expenditures. Toronto: University of Toronto. Economist. (2009). The best of all the world. The Economist. Retrieved from The Economist. (2009). The end of retirement. The Economist. Retrieved from This essay on Population Ageing in Canada was written and submitted by user Anderson Everett to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis

Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis Introduction A number of studies have carried out on the economic impact of international sporting events. The Goldman Sachs recently carried out a study to evaluate the economic impact of the Olympics. The researchers attempted to develop the relationship between economics, markets and the games.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This relationship was aimed at coming up with a prediction of the medals table. In their research, they found out that the host nations gain a lot by hosting the games. The results of the researchers established that the host nations gain in the areas of political stability, human capital, technology, and both micro and macro economic environment. The stock market of such countries also gains significantly (The Goldman Sachs, 2012). This works attempts to carry out similar regression analysis in order to validate the result s of the Goldman Sachs. A lot of emphasis will be put on developing a regression equation that will be used to predict the medals table. The analysis carried out by the Goldman Sachs As mentioned above, the Goldman Sachs came up with a model to predict the results of the Olympics. The researchers used the concept of panel regression to come up with an equation that can predict the Olympic results for the various nations that attended the games. Panel data regression is carried out on data collected on the same individual over different time periods (Greene, 2003). The explanatory variables used in the analysis were; the population of various countries, a host dummy, medal attainment, and GDP (measured by the growth environment scores).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this paper, the same variables in exclusion of a host dummy will be used in the estimation of t he regression line. Besides, a linear regression line will be generated from the sample of 50 countries. The table presented below shows the results of the regression carried out. Coefficients Intercept -24.9956 Change in medals 0.784612 GES score 6.529764 Population (measures in millions) 0.046876 From the results of regression analysis presented above, the regression line will take the form Y = -24.9956 + 0.784612X1 + 6.529764X2 + 0.046876X3. The linear regression model above can be used to estimate the number of medals that a nation will earn during an Olympics game. Further, all the 50 nations that were used in the Goldman Sachs research were used in this analysis. None of the nation was omitted. Analysis of the results The results of the regression show that countries with high GES score will earn more medals than countries with low medals. This result is shown by the positive relationship between the GES score and the number of medals earned by the country. The graph presented below shows the scatter diagram that displays the relationship between the number of gold attained by the various countries and the GES score. Based on the scatter diagram above, there exists a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This gives an indication that nations that are economically endowed are likely to earn more medals than countries with less economic resources.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, the results show that countries that host the games earn a higher number of medals than the other countries. This was the case observed in China. In summary, the results show that a large number of medals will go to countries that have a high GDP and a great potential for growth. Further, the model estimated in this paper is not consistent with the model predicted by the Goldman Sachs. They yield differ ent results. References Greene, W. (2003). Econometric analysis. Harlow: Prentice–Hall. The Goldman Sachs. (2012). The olympics and economics 2012. Web.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Financial Markets & Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Financial Markets & Risk - Essay Example iness Council for Sustainable Development defines CSR as the business commitment and contribution to the quality of life of employees, their families and the society overall, to support sustainable development. In recent years, CSR has been incorporated into the business strategy of a majority of the companies and firms in UK and all over the world. This is because of a variety of considerations that have developed in recent years making it an essential component for the success of any business. Altruistic CSR involves contributing to the common good at the possible, probable, or even definite expense of the business. It may be humanitarian, or philanthropic. Humanitarian CSR involves firms to go beyond preventing or rectifying harms they have done to assuming liability for public welfare deficiencies that they have not caused. This type of CSR is relatively rare. Strategic CSR is done to accomplish strategic business goals – good deeds are believed to be good for business as well as society. With this, corporations give back to their constituencies because it is in their best financial interests to do so. This is philanthropy aligned with profit motives. Social goals are found profitable in the long run since market forces provide financial incentives for perceived socially responsible behaviour. CSR is also a positive business driven response to the business environment of today. It is not an add-on. CSR is not static. It is a dynamic, multidimensional concept covering social, economic and environmental concerns, and is continually evolving with the diversity of the market. Innovation is a critical aspect of CSR initiatives. CSR is not an alternative to regulation. CSR is voluntary in nature. It has become imperative for businesses today to incorporate CSR in their business activities. Apart from the pressures from various directions, there are several reasons that companies find CSR initiatives beneficial for them. Rapid political, economic and

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 5

Art - Essay Example It makes individuals draw out the shape of an object and the viewpoint and the object determine shape. As individuals changes his or her view of the object, the contour also changes Option 1: Blind Contour To elaborate about my reflection, I went to the second floor of my balcony where I picked on the landscape I wanted to have a blind contour. I was having a lot of information, which I could see, as it comprised of staffs parking lots as well as residential houses. I observed the nature and the settlement of the neighborhood, which gave me insight information of what I should consider drawing. I stepped outside with my drawing brush and I wanted to airbrush what i was seeing. i did not having enough information on how to even airbrush the pictures I was seeing . It was difficult but not impossible using my arm to aid the drawing. If I wanted to move my hand, I would have with ease since I was prepared to do the drawing, as it was part of my class. As much as I was flexible and wante d to come up with an abstract figure, I had to follow the rules and be observant on what it entails. One of the things I imagined was never to move my arm when bowing. It was the first mindset to overcome to enable my hand to be free and for easy movement. I was not controlling my bow and I was simply controlling my drawing tools. During my initials stages, I was disappointed because the images I drew were very small and they did not reflect on what I wanted to have. My drawing focused on the transition of the sky and the trees. I took keen interest on the type of trees, the patterns of their trunk and ways of their droppings. On the side of the buildings, I had to recall the siding and the plants that grew next to them. As I observed on the Far East, there were around 6 trees in the foreground. I had the tendency of remembering what was in the environment, which consisted of the telephone posts and obscure details. When I settled to drawing, I resorted to blind contour as I loved i t and it was part of the instructions front the lecturer. I did not look at the paper and I had to draw the object in front of me. My experience during this drawing was that no matter what I did without looking at the paper, it looked awesome. This is because of the condition in which I drew the object; it was very pleasing to come out with as ketch as it is also not the same thing when you know exactly what you are doing. It was full of surprise coming out with a figure resembling what I was viewing. Throughout the picture, I would move my hands throughout the paper as I remember the details of what I was seeing. I could feel the paper edge though I initially had no idea in relation to that. My eyes were widely open as I was looking at what I was drawing, it was good for me to come up with such a drawing owing to the blind contour I was engaged in. The following is the first image I came out with. Option 2: Detail Reduction I chose the image, traced it source on a plain paper, and came with a complete composition like the one shown in the figure below. I chose the object because I am in love with nature more so animals. It was tempting to trace because my hand could not easily move on the paper as it could shift away from the paper. It was a good feeling tracing the images because it offered guidance since I was only to follow the laid framework and the layout. This was so easy and I could see the image I was tracing coming out. However, I was not always conscious of

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Student Spending Essay Example for Free

Student Spending Essay Abstract We used a stratified random sample to examine the spending patterns of a traditional student population at one large residential university in a small Midwestern town. Juniors and seniors spent more than underclassmen on recreation, food, general merchandise, and miscellaneous items. Male students spent more on recreation (40 percent more) while females outspent males on books and school supplies. Off-campus residents spent about twice as much on recreation, as well as more on food and for general merchandise. Those paying all their college expenses spent more overall and on general merchandise, food, and utilities. Students paying none of their college expenses spent less overall and less on gasoline and total miscellaneous items. Students who worked spent more overall and more in the following areas: general merchandise, food, utilities, and telecommunications. We also examined budget shares. Overall, books and recreation spending tend to be fixed as total spending increases, thereby reducing budget shares for these items. Women devote larger shares of their budget on  general merchandise, while men favor recreation. Students who pay none of their college expenses spend relatively more on recreation and books. Working students devote larger shares of their budget on rent and telecommunications. Non-working students spend relatively more on recreation and books. These results should be interpreted with caution since they represent a case study and do not apply to all university settings. Introduction Spending by college students has been identified as an important component of total consumer spending in the United States. One marketing firm estimated that â€Å"traditional† college students, i. e. , full-time students enrolled in fouryear institutions, who represent about one-third of all students, spent $23 billion in 1995 on essential items such as rent, food, gas, car insurance, tuition, and books. Another $7 billion was spent on nonessentials (Ring 1997). Spending by college students may be very important to local communities because many residential colleges are large relative to the size of their host community. These colleges are often seen as important players in the local economy through current spending and employment and also as potential catalysts for local economic development (Onear, 2007). Many universities have conducted economic impact studies to measure the overall influence the institution has on the local economy (Bailey et al. , 2007; Beck, 1995; Eliot 1988; Felsenstein, 1996). What is sometimes underplayed is the role of students in determining the overall size and industry mix of the local economy. Local economic impact studies often use figures for student spending derived from secondary sources such as financial aid office estimates of the dollars needed by students for miscellaneous expenditures during the year. More precise information on the magnitude and pattern of student spending would improve the accuracy of studies of universities’ economic impact. In this paper we analyze the spending behavior of traditional college students, who account for a large portion of the revenues of many local businesses in small towns hosting residential colleges. Although total spending by a student is often less than that of a local resident, student spending is concentrated in just a few areas, such as entertainment and food and beverage purchases in stores. In addition, many national retailers view traditional college students as a lucrative market since lifetime buying habits are formed in part during a person’s college years. Spending behaviors established in college may continue through two transition phases: single to young married couple, and young married couple to families with small children at home (Wilkes 1995). Changing personal behaviors and societal trends have contributed to the common perception of college students relying heavily on credit, obtained mostly with credit cards. The average college undergraduate’s credit card debt in 2001 was $2,327 and by 2006 had increased to $2,700 (Young Money, 2007); nearly one-half of all students had four or more credit cards (Hayhoe 2005). These changing attitudes toward the use of credit suggest that today’s college students are likely to spend more than students in the past because spending by today’s students is less constrained by current income and assets. This paper offers data to assess the accuracy of some perceptions about traditional college student spending and its potential impact on local economic conditions. We provide a descriptive analysis of the size and pattern of spending by college students at a single large university in a Midwestern small-town setting. The analysis focuses on a random sample of undergraduate students (stratified by gender and class level) and their spending behavior in the local area while attending classes. Spending behavior across demographic categories (e. g., gender, class standing), housing choice (on-campus or off-campus,) and employment are examined. The results provide insights about the magnitude and pattern of student spending that would be helpful to college officials, community leaders, and local business owners in assessing the impacts of this spending on the local economy and local economic development. Survey Method and Data Many empirical studies of college students’ use of credit cards or attitudes toward money employ so-called â€Å"convenience samples†, e. g. , surveys distributed in classrooms, dormitories or cafeterias (Davies and Lea (1995); Xiao et al.(1995); Eastman et al. (1997); Warwick and Mansfield (2000); Roberts and Jones (2001); Kidwell and Turrisi (2003); and Hayhoe et al. (2005)). These convenience samples are non-random selections from the student population. Students choose classes for specific reasons and, thereby, self-select based on a set of personal and course characteristics. For example, survey answers from students in an introductory-level child development class are likely to be different from students in a senior-level finance course. These samples create problems for interpretation of results and bias inferences about the general student population. The nature and strength of these biases are typically unknown. Other studies survey a wide range of randomly selected students but obtain low response rates that suggest a potential unknown and unmeasured response bias (Medina et al. (1996); Markovich and DeVaney (1997); Hayhoe et al. (1999); Leach (1999); Hayhoe et al. (2000)). The sample data used for this paper was collected through a telephone survey. Staff members of the Center for Applied Research and Rural Studies (CARRS) at Central Michigan University (CMU) helped to write the survey questions. The Registrar’s office used all undergraduate students enrolled on the main campus of CMU in the Spring 2005 semester (a population of roughly 18,000) to provide a randomly selected list of students stratified by gender and class standing. We opted for a telephone survey since it assured us of a stratified random sample. Eliot (1988) concluded that responses by students to questions about their spending behavior are not influenced by whether the survey was conducted by telephone or mail. CARRS conducted the survey during one week in March 2005 using interviewers from two undergraduate social science research methods courses. The use of students to complete the interviews may improve the accuracy of the data as student respondents may be more relaxed and respond more openly to fellow students than older adults. Calls were placed to 2,250 telephone numbers, of which 880 calls were answered and 503 surveys were completed. The overall response rate was 22 percent (503/2250), but 57 percent (503/880) of the students who answered phone calls participated in the survey (see Appendix B for a full survey phone call report). The survey instrument was composed of four parts for four separate research projects. To reduce the length of the survey and avoid respondent fatigue, two parts of the survey were answered by all respondents while the other two parts, including our questions on spending behavior, were answered by onehalf of the respondents (i. e. , 251). Allowing for coding errors, etc. , our sample was reduced to 247 respondents. We believe this is a high-quality data set because of the stratified random sample selection process and the high participation rate. Most of the demographic proportions required of a stratified random sample are met in the student spending sample of 247 observations. Table 1 (below) displays the demographic characteristics of our sample and the proportions for the CMU student population. Gender and ethnicity characteristics of the sample closely correspond to the CMU population. The largest discrepancy occurs in residency, as the sample overrepresents on-campus students and under-represents off-campus students, as residency was not one of the target stratifications that were sought in the sampling process. Class proportions vary across the CMU population and the sample data. A clarification is in order. The Registrar’s office selected students according to the characteristics of gender, ethnicity, and class standing for the Spring 2005 semester, the semester that the survey was conducted. Figures for the CMU population in Table 1 are those reported for the Fall 2005 semester. The only published census of the student population is in the Fall semester; Fall student characteristics vary in a consistent pattern from the Spring semester. There are relatively fewer seniors in the Spring semester as Fall graduation depletes this  class and the proportion of freshman increases in the Spring semester since most freshmen haven’t earned enough credits to move into the sophomore class. The number of freshmen, therefore, remains approximately the same in the Spring semester, while the total student population declines. The survey questions asked for personal information and the student’s typical local spending behavior during the months they spend on campus. Surveyed students were asked about the amount they spent in various categories in Isabella County (where CMU is located) when the university is in session (late August through mid-May). All the surveyed students were asked the amount they spend during a typical week in retail stores, and how much of that was for groceries. The students were also asked about weekly gasoline and recreation expenditures as well as the amount they typically spend each semester for books and other school supplies. Respondents living off campus, but not at-home with parents, were asked about monthly expenditures for rent, communication services (telephone, local cell phone, cable television and internet access), and other utilities (e. g., natural gas and electric). Students were given the opportunity to identify up to two additional types of expenditures that they incurred on a regular basis and up to two out-of-the-ordinary expenses that had incurred during the previous semester. Only a small number of respondents reported any spending in response to these questions. [1] Table 1: Selected Demographic Characteristics of the Student Sample Variable Observations Percent of sample or mean value1 CMU population proportions or mean values2 Gender female 147 60% 57% male. 100 40% 43% Class freshman 57 23% 27% sophomore 45 18% 22% junior 52 21% 20% senior 93 38% 31% Age 247 22 years 21 years Ethnicity white 226 91% 91% Non-white 21 9% 9% Residence on-campus 121 49% 33% off-campus 110 45% 67% W ith parents 15 6% Local in summer 62 26% Have car 205 83% Employed 130 53% Work hours 130 22. 2/week College financing Pay none 42 17% Pay some 77 31% Pay half 30 12% Pay most 38 15% Pay all 59 24% 1: represents the sample characteristics of the Spring 2005 survey 2: represents CMU’s student census in Fall 2005. Table 2 (below) shows the general categories of spending that were reported and the corresponding average amount spent over a nine-month period for those students that reported any spending in these categories. The last category in this table is for spending identified by the respondent but not classified in the other categories. The most commonly reported miscellaneous spending was for automobile repair and services. Questions were asked about the amount and the timing of spending since some spending tends to occur on a weekly basis (e. g. , groceries and gasoline). Table 2: Mean Student Spending by Spending Category, 9-months Spending category Observations 9-month mean Percent of total spending Recreation 239 $1,406 23% Stores (includes food) 222 $1,283 19% Food 211 $842 12% Rent 109 $3,228 24% Telecommunications 103 $776 5% 87 $606 4% Books and supplies 239 $724 12% Gasoline 198 $592 8% Miscellaneous 120 $559 5% 8 $2,415 1% 62 $601 3% 1 $315 0% 19 $1,826 2% Hospitals 2 $208 0% Child care 1 $4,610 0% Other nonprofit 9 $353 0% Religious organiz. 13 $587 1% State local gov’t 9 $725 0% Other miscellaneous 31 $774 2% Total annual spending 247 $5,928 100% Utilities. Computer services Auto repair Recreation clubs Doctors and dentists Notes: Only respondents reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values. Total annual spending does not double-count food expenditures. Weekly and monthly expenditures were converted to figures based on a 9month calendar since most students reside in the local area only during the traditional academic year, i. e. the Fall and Spring semesters. Spending by students residing in the local area on a year-round basis was calculated as if they were 9-month residents to provide consistency in the reported figures. [2] A CMU Student Profile Since we take a case study approach, it is appropriate for us to provide a brief description of the CMU student population to aid in the interpretation of the results of our study. CMU is a regional universityone of 15 publicly-assisted universities in the state. In 2005 it attracted students from every county in Michigan as well as 47 other states. Ninety-eight percent of the students are Michigan residents, nine percent are self-identified as African American, Native American, Asian or Hispanic, and 99 percent are U.S. citizens. The greatest proportion of students (29 percent) resided in the Detroit metropolitan area as high school students. The legal-age for drinking alcoholic beverages in Michigan is 21 years. The typical CMU undergraduate fits the description of a â€Å"traditional student† (See Table 1 above. ). Most are full-time students who live either in residence halls on campus (freshman are required to live on-campus) or nearby (i. e. within 5 miles) in off-campus rental housing. Only six percent were identified as living at home with their parents. Most (74 percent) leave town during the summer months to return to their home town or other areas to find work or internships. Their mean age is 22 years. The gender distribution (57 percent female, 43 percent male) reflects CMU’s academic traditions. CMU graduates more teaching majors annually than all but a handful of other universities in the nation and offers newer programs in health professions which attract a large number of female students. According to sample data, most students (83 percent) have use of a car, and about half are employed for an average of 22 hours per week. Thirty nine percent pay most or all, 43 percent pay some or about half, and 17 percent pay none of their college expenses. Patterns of Spending An overall description of the sample characteristics is provided in Table 2 (above). [3] Only students reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values. Most students reported spending on recreation, stores, food, books and supplies, and gasoline. Students living on campus were not asked questions about living expenses since rent, utilities and telecommunications expenses are typically aggregated into a one-semester housing charge. Less than one-half of the respondents reported any spending on rent, utilities, telecommunications, or miscellaneous items. The spending categories with the greatest mean values and widespread reporting of are rent, recreation, and general spending in stores (including food items). About one-half of the students indicated that they had spent funds on a variety of miscellaneous items. The most frequently cited items were auto repairs, physician and dentist services, and contributions to religious and non-profit organizations. Some categories of miscellaneous spending (i.e. , child care, computers and computer services, and medical care) had large mean expenditures among those reporting any spending for these things. However, few students reported any spending in these categories. Table 2 (above) shows per student spending for all spending categories. The student sample spends a considerable amount on recreation (about 23 percent of total spending) and most of their spending at stores (about 66 percent) goes for food items. Spending on non-food items, i. e. , general merchandise, is a modest $441 in a none-month period. In fact, students in the survey spent more on text books ($724) and gasoline ($592) than non-food items in stores ($441). Less than half of students pay for rent, utilities and telecommunications equipment and services, but these expenditures are considerable compared with other items of spending. Recall that about half the students lived in on-campus housing and were not asked questions about expenditures on rent, utilities and telecommunications. However, the overall student profile hides substantial variation in the pattern of spending across groups of students. Class standing clearly affects spending patterns shown in Table 3 (below). Perhaps first-year students have lower incomes from summer work and different lifestyles than juniors and seniors. Freshmen are required to stay on-campus, and many sophomores choose to stay in dormitories – only 109 of the 247 respondents (44 percent) reported that they paid rent for off-campus housing and of only five of these were freshmen or sophomores. Freshmen and sophomores spend significantly less than juniors and seniors on a variety of items including recreation, food and non-food items from stores, and miscellaneous purchases. Seniors spend substantially more than underclassmen on recreation (69 percent and 95 percent more than freshmen and sophomores respectively), and they spend more than twice as much on miscellaneous items and general merchandise and food in stores. Some of these spending differences reflect Michigan’s legal drinking age of 21 and off-campus versus on-campus lifestyle choices. Table 3: Mean Student Expenditures by Class Standing, 9-month Figures Spending category Recreation Stores (includes food) Food Rent Telecommunications Utilities Books and supplies Gasoline. Total miscellaneous Total annual spending Freshmen n $1,079 $733 $512 $5,616 $1,350 $0 $686 $595 $462 $2,892 % 53 35% 47 21% 42 13% 1 3% 1 1% 1 0% 57 24% 34 12% 19 5% 57 101% Sophomores $942 $695 $468 $2,948 $495 $795 $700 $493 $217 $3,017 n % 42 30% 39 20% 34 12% 4 9% 4 1% 3 2% 44 23% 31 12% 23 4% 44 101% Juniors $1,358 $1,313 $908 $2,803 $608 $544 $750 $561 $487 $6,267 n % 52 21% 48 19% 49 13% 31 26% 31 6% 21 3% 53 12% 49 8% 29 4% 53 100% Seniors $1,833 $1,822 $1,114 $3,392 $862 $618 $682 $652 $1,014 $8,910 n % 92 20% 88 19% 86 12% 73 30% 67 7% 63 5% 93 8% 85 7% 36 4% 93 100%. Notes: Only respondents reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values. n is the number of observations. Percent is each category’s percent of total spending. A t-test for difference in mean values was conducted for each figure in the table. Italicized cells denote that the cell’s mean value is different from the grouped mean value of the other three classes and statistically significant at the 5 percent level. Total annual spending does not doublecount food expenditures. Another approach is to compare budget shares, rather than gross spending across categories. We know from Table 3 (above) that seniors spend, on average, $6,000 more than freshmen. But do seniors apportion their spending across categories in a similar manner as freshman, or do they have different spending priorities? The columns labeled â€Å"percent† represent a category’s share of total spending. Budget shares of categories associated with off-campus living clearly increase as students move through class standings since most underclassmen live on-campus. Two categories of spending, recreation and books, exhibit decreasing shares across the freshman-to-senior years. This suggests that gross spending in these categories increases at a slower rate than total spending across years. This trend may disappear if housing fees for on-campus students were added to their total spending. Previous studies indicate that gender influences college students’ use of credit cards and their spending behavior (Chien and DeVaney (2001); Davies and Lea (1995); Furnham (1996); Hayhoe et al. (1999); Hayhoe et al. (2000); Leach et al. (1999); and Xiao et al. (1995)). We examine gender differences in Table 4 (below). Clearly, male students, on average, spend more than women on recreation. This differential is substantial both in terms of dollars (i. e. , $1,821 vs. $1,289) and in percentages (i. e. men spend 46 percent more). Women spend more on textbooks and school supplies ($738 vs. $647). [4] Other categories of spending exhibit no statistically significant differences in behavior across gender at a 95 percent confidence level. Table 4: Mean student expenditures by gender, 9-month Figures Spending category Recreation Stores (includes food) Food Rent Store: non-food Telecommunications Utilities Books and supplies Gasoline Total miscellaneous Total annual spending. Female $1,289 $1,350 $810 $3,341 $540 $662 $635 $738 $553 183 $5,599 n 147 146 144 58 146 48 58 147 117 60 147 % 23% 24% 14% 24% 10% 4% 4% 13% 8% 1% 101% Male $1,821 $1,234 $858 $3,100 $376 $536 $508 $647 $655 $293 $6,411 n % 100 28% 99 19% 97 13% 51 25% 99 12% 39 3% 47 4% 100 10% 82 8% 43 2% 100 100% t-statistic probability difference value in means 2. 59 0. 53 0. 36 0. 77 1. 29 1. 01 0. 92 2. 16 1. 40 1. 44 1. 39 0. 01 0. 60 0. 72 0. 44 0. 20 0. 31 0. 36 0. 03 0. 16 0. 08 0. 17. Notes: Only respondents reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values.n is the number of observations. Percent is the category’s percent of total spending. Total annual spending does not double-count food expenditures. Stereotyping and studies of student attitudes towards money and credit card use suggest that women are more likely to shop for clothing or personal items and use credit cards to purchase them (Hayhoe et al. (1999); Hayhoe et al. (2000); Leach (1999)). Our data does not support that contention. A t-test of the difference in means for the category of non-food store spending yielded insignificant results: a t-statistic of 1. 29 with a p-value of 0. 20. Several factors may explain our conflicting conclusion. One, our stratified random sample could remove response bias inherent in the sampling procedures of the previous studies. Two, if binge shopping is practiced by a very small percentage of students, then it will have little impact on our mean spending figures. Three, since our survey data relies on student responses, binge spenders may under-report spending either to hide their problem behavior or because they do not know how much they are spending. Four, maybe there is some credence to the stereotype of fiscally-conservative Midwesterners. Five, following stereotypes, it may be that women spend more on clothing and men spend more on video games and equipment. Differences in budget shares across gender simply reflect differences in gross spending: women spend a greater dollar amount and share of their budgets in stores (24 versus 19 percent) while men spend a greater dollar amount and share on recreation (28 versus 23 percent). Lifestyle choices may also affect the level and pattern of spending by traditional college students. Table 5 (below) provides a comparison of mean values for on-campus residents, off-campus residents, and those students living at home with their parents. On average, students living off-campus, but not with parents, spend about twice as much as on-campus residents on recreation and stores and nearly three times as much in local stores on food items. Although there are few observations for the category, spending by students living at home with parents does differ from both dormitory and other off-campus residents. This group spends more on recreation, stores, food and miscellaneous items than dormitory residents, but these differences are not statistically significant. Students living at home in the local area spend more than the other two groups on gasoline. On-campus students may spend on gas to intermittently drive home on the weekends while at-home-students are likely to drive to and from campus each day; perhaps multiple times per day. Since this group tends to be underclassmen, the differential between the on-campus and with-parents groups may, in part, measure how much time on-campus students spend away from campus. [5] On-campus students spend a greater share of their budget on recreation (34 versus 19 percent), stores (29 versus 17 percent) and books (24 versus 7 percent) than off-campus students. The book share difference is driven by differences in total spending since gross spending on books in nearly identical. Although off-campus students spend twice as much on recreation and stores than on-campus students, their shares of total spending are lower. Table 5: Mean student Expenditures by Place of Residence, 9-month Figures Spending category Recreation Stores (includes food) Food Rent Telecommunications Utilities Books and supplies Gasoline Total miscellaneous Total annual spending oncampus $1,024 $869 $434 no observ. no observ. no observ. $733 $476 $158. $2,634 n % 121 34% 119 29% 116 14% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 120 24% 81 11% 45 2% 137 100% offcampus $2,004 $1,802 $1,263 $3,689 $871 $578 $718 $651 $290 $10,353 n % 110 19% 110 17% 109 12% 110 36% 107 8% 105 5% 107 7% 104 6% 55 1% 110 100% with parents $1,706 $1,103 $748 no observ. no observ. no observ. $700 $864 $175 $4,123 n % 16 41% 16 27% 16 18% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 12 13% 14 18% 3 1% 16 100% Notes: Only respondents reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values. n is the number of observations. Percent is each category’s percent of total spending. A t-test for difference in mean values was conducted for each figure in the table. Italicized cells denote that the cell’s mean value is different from the grouped mean value of the other two groups and statistically significant at the 5 percent level. Total annual spending does not double-count food expenditures. Students have different budget constraints from one another. Although the survey did not specifically ask questions about the student’s or parents’ incomes or assets, it did ask whether the student worked and what proportion of college and other living expenses was paid by the students. Answers to these questions can measure a student’s ability to pay, particularly for those items which represent discretionary expenditures (e. g. recreation spending). Table 6 (below) examines mean values for student spending based on the students’ financial burden for college expenses. Again, recall that those students living on campus were not asked questions about their spending on rent, utilities and telecommunications. Variation in patterns for these three spending categories in this table could be the result of the surveying procedure. Relatively few of the differentials in spending are significant at the 5 percent level in Table 6; with many of these occurring for the â€Å"pay none† and â€Å"pay all† categories. Those students who â€Å"pay all† have higher overall expenditures than the other groups (when combined) in terms of stores, food, and utilities and overall spending. The â€Å"pay all† category is likely composed of students who are financially independent of their parents and are working substantial hours to support themselves. They are also more likely to be non-traditional students having parental responsibilities and different asset levels and lifestyles. All of these characteristics contribute to a higher overall level of spending. Those who â€Å"pay none† spend significantly less on gasoline, total miscellaneous, and overall spending. An examination of sample data suggests that students in the â€Å"pay all† and â€Å"pay none† categories are substantially different in terms of work behavior and age. Students in the â€Å"pay all† category were more likely to work (61 percent of the group) than the â€Å"pay none† students (36 percent), and when they did work, they tended to work a greater number of hours: 22. 4 versus 16. 9 hours. In terms of age, the â€Å"pay all† group was clearly older. The â€Å"pay all† group had some of the oldest students in the sample (i. e. , the oldest students in this group were 48, 40, 35 and 32), while the â€Å"pay none† group had fewer of the oldest students (i. e. , the oldest students in this group were 37, 24, 24 and 23). The mean age of the â€Å"pay all† group was 23. 5 years, while that for the â€Å"pay none† group was 21. 1 years. These characteristics suggest that more of the â€Å"pay all† group would be classified as â€Å"non-traditional† students. Budget shares for most categories of spending exhibit no consistent pattern in Table 6 (below). Two patterns do emerge, however: those students who â€Å"pay none† of their college expenses tend to spend a greater proportion of their budget on recreation (29 percent) and books (15 percent) than students in the other categories, even though they spend comparable gross dollar amounts. Total annual spending generally rises as the proportion paid by students rises, with the exception of the pay-half and pay-most categories being reversed. The general trend may arise because both proportion of college expenses paid and total annual spending rise with student work hours and earnings. Another possibility is that with a higher proportion of college expenses paid by the student, there is less oversight of spending by the parents, with consequent upward pressure on current spending. Table 6: Mean Student Expenditures by Proportion of College Paid by Student, 9-month Figures Spending category pay none n % pay some n % Recreation Stores (includes food) Food Rent Telecommunications Utilities Books and supplies Gasoline Total miscellaneous Total annual spending $1,308 $1,096 $844 $2,866 $569 $572 $642 $462 $261 $4,423 41 29% 37 22% 33 15% 12 19% 11 3% 7 2% 42 15% 33 8% 18 3% 42 100% $1,328 $1,270 $722. $3,210 $814 $556 $747 $541 $492 $5,268 76 25% 71 22% 68 12% 25 20% 23 5% 20 3% 74 8% 59 14% 35 4% 77 100% pay half n % $1,483 $1,212 $780 $3,293 $503 $456 $688 $675 $346 $6,504 28 21% 28 17% 27 11% 18 30% 17 4% 17 4% 30 11% 26 9% 17 3% 30 100% pay most n % $1,192 $1,052 $885 $3,397 $1,170 $342 $674 $660 $565 $5,461 36 21% 30 15% 29 12% 16 26% 15 8% 13 2% 37 12% 31 10% 20 5% 38 100% pay all n $1,699 $1,584 $1,001 $3,254 $781 $847 $754 $665 $933 $7,953 57 21% 56 19% 54 12% 38 26% 37 6% 30 5% 59 9% 50 7% 30 6% 59 100% Notes: Only respondents reporting positive expenditures were included in the calculation of mean values. n is the number of observations is in parentheses. Percent is each category’s percent of total spending. A t-test for difference in mean values was conducted for each figure in the table. Italicized cells denote that the cell’s mean value is different from the grouped mean value of the other four groups and statistically significant at the 5 percent level. Total annual spending does not double-count food expenditures. Table 7 (below) reports differences in spending between employed and unemployed students. Those who work spend more overall and in the specific categories of stores, telecommunications, and total miscellaneous spending. Using a 10 percent level of significance, one additional difference arises: working students spend more on gasoline. To the extent that these students are living off-campus and commute to work via automobile, these spending differences are plausible. % Table 7: Mean Student Expenditures by Employment, 9-month Figures Spending category Recreation Stores (includes food) Food Rent Telecommunications Utilities Books and supplies Gasoline Total miscellaneous Total annual spending employed n $1,465 $1,506 $911 $3,308 $881 $657 $715.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Doctor Faustus Essays: Psychoanalytical, Feministic, and Cultural Persp

Psychoanalytical, Feministic, and Cultural Perspectives in Dr. Faustus Christopher Marlowe's acclaimed Doctor Faustus uses many rhetorical methods to breathe life into the plot and story line. There are obviously psychoanalytical methods used, as well as certain aspects of the feministic method, somewhat less evident, but no less important are the cultural background issues that come into play. These three methods help to smooth the edges and round out the corners of this complex journey into the fictitious life of a highly educated man who appears to have anything he would need. Psychoanalytically speaking, the battles between the id and superego of Dr. Faustus, cause severe turmoil in his moral conscience. This is evident in the text by the battery of the two angels, one holy and the other evil. He even consciously battles with his id, when he cries out, "O Christ, my savior, my savior! Help to save distressed Faustus' soul." (P. 48, lines89-90) Faustus often becomes offensive with Meph...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Teenagers: A Despairing Glimpse At Future Generations

My piece is an argumentative article, intended for publication in a broadsheet newspaper such as The Daily Telegraph. The primary purpose is to argue a rather controversial idea based upon the semantic field of teenage culture and behaviour; however, the piece also aims to entertain with frequent use of humour through hyperbole and sarcasm, such as â€Å"Oh, how mature†. The text is aimed at an audience of educated adults, hence the formal and somewhat advanced lexis perpetuated throughout. My piece is based on an article by Quentin Letts, from which I adopted such linguistic features as repetitive listing, comedic imagery, satirical imitation and inclusive mode of address. I realised that Letts' style was often overly pretentious, and that he often presents views which would be seen as controversial or belligerent by most, as displayed by the declarative â€Å"Many of us are bog-standard class†. His altercations often target certain groups of people, and this was utilised in my own piece by attacking a whole generation, much to the amusement of the given audience. Both mine and Letts' articles are comparable in the sense that they are both self-deprecating: Letts, attacking the British whilst being a Briton himself, and me, attacking teenagers whilst acknowledging that I am a teenager myself. The use of mode of address helps to punctuate the self-inclusive nature, with the first-person plural pronoun â€Å"we† used to bridge a connection between me and teenagers, and to establish an unwanted common ground. Although I am wholly included within the recipients of my own blame, I make it obvious that I wish to be distanced from teenagers as I am writing from a viewpoint which does not want to be related with teenagers. I utilise various methods which help emphasise my stance. A method of intimidation which Letts uses is imitation as demonstrated with the declarative â€Å"e don't love me!†, which is thus emulated in my piece with: â€Å"ME MAM BURNT ME CHIKEN NUGETS!† which also uses satiric misspelling to hyperbolise the remark, and maintain the humour of the piece in order to conform to the purpose. The use of such imitation makes clear the dissonance between me and teenagers as it directly parodies them in a somewhat demeaning way. Letts helps to convey his argument by use of metaphors such as â€Å"climbing down into the gutter is a dangerous tactic†. This was mirrored in my piece with the metaphor â€Å"we speedily climb the ladder of maturity, whilst our parents wait at the top† which not only presents clever imagery to affirm the point for the reader, but also provides humour in a more refined way; use of such humour is used to adjust more with the audience of the piece. When writing the piece, I aimed to argue my point in a succinct and structured way, which would simultaneously permeate an air of humour and pretension which Letts so adequately upholds. The audience is under consideration throughout, with clear attempts to maintain formal lexis and thus appease those of higher education and class, as shown with such words as the concrete noun â€Å"cacophony† and the descriptive adjective â€Å"gargantuan†. Yet this effectively contrasts with the satiric use of informal lexis such as colloquial adjective â€Å"plastered†, and the ironic use of such text abbreviations as â€Å"TBH† and â€Å"IDK†.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Holocaust in Hollywood Movies - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 446 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Holocaust Essay Did you like this example? Hollywood is notorious for creating films based on true stories, but the end result elaborates the truth or adds details for entertainment to increase interest. Schindlers List is no different. Many historical movies have had love interests or love story base line to appeal to more audiences therefore increasing revenue. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Holocaust in Hollywood Movies" essay for you Create order Spielberg not only adds to the movie but chooses to leave out historical information to retell easier. Schindlers List is based on the book written by Thomas Keneally which has been categorized as fiction; from this book a screen play was written by Steven Zaillian and attempts to say it was written based on accurate information. Based on this information the movie was marketed as based on a true story. Most of the characters names and city names were correct in the movie even the name of the factory and camps were correct. But the majority of the rest of the movie was created or misrepresented for entertainment purposes. Spielberg also blurs the line between fact and fiction by referring to factual matters in a fictional way (Journal of Historical review). Schindlers List has won many awards and Spielberg has used this to establish himself as the Holocaust expert yet the more information others learn questions arise that this movie nor Spielberg can answer. The films very first event didnt take place in real life. As film starts with a dinner exchange between Schindler and a crew of Nazi commanders. This interaction of Schindler meeting the Nazi commanders would have not taken place unless it was a planned event, because he had already known them from his previous line of work. Another thing that Hollywood added was the scene where Schindler was watching the homes of the Jewish people in the ghetto get demolished, while riding a horse on the top of a hill. Realistically Schindlers factory was mostly operated by the Polish, while the Hollywood movie showcases the work environment being strictly Jewish. The movie also shows Oskar Schindler Listing out the name of his workers he was trying to save, making it seem as though he personally knew each and every one of his workers. Which was in fact quite the opposite because according to his wife he only knew a handful of his workers by name and even then, it was only because they had visited h im often. Oskar Schindlers wife, Emilie was almost cut out of the film altogether despite her important role in real life. She kept all the workers in the factory healthy by providing them food. The movie did portray Oskar and Emilies relationship correctly. He was married to Emilie at age 19, but never without a mistress or two.