Wednesday, May 27, 2020
In order to achieve common recognition of work prospects, areas and opportunities that exist for the growth of the employees as well as for the organization by appraising performance outcomes, an evolving concept of performance management is on the rise. Performance management is a systematic process that links means that enable organizations to foster a common image related to the goals set by the organization and in providing direction to workers so that they can comprehend and preserve for both, individual as well as companys performance (Holton, 2002). According to (Salem, 2003) , performance management can be stated as a methodology that is integrative and orderly for the purpose of enlightening organizational performance that encourages a philosophy focused towards the attainment of planned aims, mission, vision and principles. More precisely, it is concerned with evaluating the performance of workforces so that development can be carried in by relating suitable assessment and rewards for the efforts of the employees and by simplifying the flow of communication, boosting learning prospects and explicatory work engagements (Salem, 2003). OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Lockett has underlined a number of performance managements goals. They are as follows: The main aim of performance management is to facilitate the workforce of an organization to achieve higher standards of performing their job responsibilities. Performance management enables the employees to improve the level of their current performance by authorizing, encouraging and executing an operative reward mechanism. Facilitating smooth flow of communication so that potentials regarding roles, tasks, reporting are simplified between the managers and the employees. It enables the communication of corporate, business and functional goals alongside providing a systematic and apparent opinion about performance of the employee. Ensures constant supervision and coaching. The key aim for performance management is to identify and resolve the barriers that prevent effective performance. This can be done by way of providing instructions, active governance, close monitoring and change interventions. Building a foundation for numerous organizational assessments deliberate arrangements, succession planning, advancements and rewards linked with performance. Providing employees with the opportunity to prosper by exploiting the opportunities that exist so as to achieve personal growth and improvement in their career (Lockett, 1992). FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: For performance management system to be implemented, there are a number of conditions that must exist prior to its execution. These factors include: Ability of manager to mobilize the organization. Effectively communicating the roles, duties and responsibilities of all such individuals who are the participants in the process of bringing about change. Transparency and Simplicity Practicality and Participation Equality and Objectivity (Amatayakul, 2005). STYLE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT In the views of Joseph R. Grima, performance management should be: Participative: Performance management is a two way process and must encourage the participation of both supervisor and employee. This participation should be there for establishing objectives at the very start of the assessment period and at the end, evaluating results. Task-oriented: Performance should be measured on the basis of business objectives and the outcomes, personal traits and pre-defined areas and targets. Developmental: The process should be implemented not only to evaluate and rate employees but also to help the employees to advance their future career paths by way of personal growth and development. It should also identify the areas where employee needs further training (Grima, 2000). It is essential for performance management system to be participative, task-oriented as well as developmental. If the performance management system of an organization doesnt provides the employees opportuniti es to learn and develop when deficiencies from the results are identified, than such system is of no use. The main focus of performance management is to identify and to address vital people issues that exist in an organization. It leads towards building relationship with the people employed by the organization. It creates an environment or work setting that enables the employed people to best perform the abilities that they possess (Heathfield, 2012). PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT MODEL An integrated model of performance management is presented by (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005) pg #421. For effective implementation of performance management, it is important to consider three appropriate factors that exist in the larger organizational perspective and affects performance organization wide. These factors include: Business Strategy: It includes internal and external environment within which the company operates. It also includes all those policies, procedures, plans, objectives, environment that enables an organization to compete in the most successful manner and the focus that organization has on effective performance of its employees. Workplace Technology: Workplace technology has a huge impact on performance of individuals and groups. It depends upon whether the technology is high or low in interdependence. In case technology is highly interdependent, work structures are preferably designed for work groups rather than individuals and performance management in such a case is aimed at work group behavior (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Employee Involvement: Level of involvement depends upon the control that exists in an organization varying from bureaucratic to flexible. Organizations rigid controls discourage participation and the setting of goals, appraisal of performance are formalized and inflexibly administered by management. On the other hand, when organizations are supportive and flexible, participation from employees is encouraged, sense of ownership increases and performance management becomes a two way process for employees as well as for the employer (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). GOAL SETTING: Goal setting specifies the acceptable level of performance. It is a two way process in which employee and the employer establishes and gain understanding of the goals set for the employee to achieve. Goal setting involves: Establishing challenging goals: An organization should set goals by encouraging participation from the employees, setting challenging and clear goals that are specifically defined and realistic (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Clarifying goal measurement: When the goals set by the organization are specific, each employee has a clear understanding of what is expected from him. However to achieve clarity in goal measurement, goals should be operationally defined (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). Management by objectives: Another way of setting goals is by way of management by objectives (MBO); focusing on alignment of personal goals with the business strategy by facilitating the flow of communication between the manager and the subordinate and by unificat ion of conflicts where it exists(Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). . This process of MBO can be implemented by following the below mentioned steps: Step1: Group along with individual goals is defined and action plans are developed for the achievement of the set goals. Step2: Job duties, responsibilities and accountabilities are stated so that the individual has a clear understanding of what is to be done and what not. Step3: A course of action for the execution of goals is determined known as action plans. Step4: At this stage, the acceptable criteria for success and performance are agreed upon between the manager and the subordinate. This has to be a two way process so that a mutual understanding of goals and success criteria is achieved. Step5: From time to time, manager reviews the performance of the subordinate or in other words review the progress of the work assigned. This step can be broken down into three sub-steps. First step is when the subordinate takes the initiative to talk with the manager about the opportunities, hurdles, achievements accomplished. Second step is when manager initiates a dialogue or meeting with the subordinate to discuss about the work plans for the future. In the last step, coaching and analysis usually takes place. Step6: All the documents related to goal setting, success criterion, priorities, rewards and due dates are forwarded to a senior management (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Discussing and reviewing the performance of an employee in context of the tasks and responsibilities assigned to him as part of his job. Appraisal is based on job performance rather than personal characteristics of an employee. It provides an employee with the chance of identifying areas that needs improvement and also directs as to what are the strengths to capitalize on and weaknesses to avoid (Lee, 2007). Process of performance appraisal: According to (Egan, 1995), the process of performance appraisal is as follows: Establishing standards: First and foremost step in performance appraisal process is to set standards based upon which actual and desired performance can be compared. For this purpose, the standards set should be simple, clear and measureable. Communicating standards: Standards set but not well communicated will be of no use. Thus it is essential that the employees must be communicated about the set standards so that they have a clear idea as to what is expected of them (Egan, 1995). Measuring actual performance: This stage in the process of performance appraisal is the most difficult because to quantify the level of actual performance is complex. Appropriate measurement tools must be selected so that the performance measured is objective and realistic (Egan, 1995). Comparing actual with preferred performance: This comparison is important so that deviation from preferred performance is quantif ied. If the actual performance is below the desired level, result is negative deviation (Egan, 1995). Discussing results: Upon comparing the actual with the preferred performance, the result of the comparison whether it is positive or negative is communicated to the employee. Employer also pays attention as to why this deviation is taking place. At this stage, pragmatic solutions are determined and evaluated with each employee individually (Egan, 1995). Decision making: At this stage, decision is made i.e. what needs to be done in order to improve the performance and what corrective actions need to be taken. Performance appraisal must be consistent, timely, precise and conventional to users, focused on important control points and economically realistic (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). REWARD SYSTEM: The importance of designing and implementing reward systems in organization is increasing at a rapid pace. It is a matter of common observation that when employee performs a good job, they expect to receive some kind of reward in turn. Thus reward system of any organization plays an important role in motivating employees towards performance (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005).Following are some of the reward systems: Job Based: According to this system, pay structure is designed in which salary schedules are determined according to the position range based upon responsibilities and tasks assigned. This system minimizes the likelihood of probable biased pay practices (Kokemuller, 2007). Performance Based: It is important for this kind of system to be successful, performance must be linked with the rewards that individuals receive such as for good performances salary may increase, a bonus may be rewarded (Thomas J. Atchison, 2010). Skill and Knowledge-Based Pay System: Accordin g to this system, employees must be rewarded according to the knowledge, skills and abilities that they possess often called skills inventory. As employees are paid on this basis, it results in increased motivation, improved productivity, lower absenteeism and turnover (Paren, 1994). Gain Sharing Systems: This is a form of remuneration. It offers a good deal for both employer as well as employee. Since employer are willing to negotiate deals in terms of improved performance and employees are willing to negotiate deals in terms of fair returns for their efforts (Bowey, 2008). Promotion Systems: This system enables employees to grow their position and acquire higher-status positions in the organization. Nowadays, open job posting has become a norm and enables employees who believe in their abilities to suggest their names (Thomas G. Cummings C. G., 2005). GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: At times the best considered performance management system is subject to collapse if it is improperly managed. Fraser has provided a number of guidelines for improving the performance management system and is as follows: An article for the purpose of internal affairs such as an internal manual should be produced that explains the PM system and must be done on consistent basis. The employees must have a clear idea as to how PM system works and must be able to understand its connection with their individual performance. In order to bring in efficiency and to avoid potential biases, senior management should be trained in this regard. Good performance should be recorded in a formal document and be rewarded accordingly. On the other hand, poor performance should be recorded and opportunities to improve must be offered alongside monitoring whether improved performance is evident or not. Key performance indicators should be developed that are simple and clear to the employe es. Most importantly, organizations should avoid developing too many key performance indicators otherwise the focus on important issues can be abstracted (Fraser, 2007). CONCLUSION With reference to the above mentioned sources, we can conclude that the integrated process of performance management aims to identify, assess and strengthen employee work behaviors and outcomes. Involvement of the employees of the organization is crucial to make the performance management system a success. Goal setting, performance appraisal and reward systems form part of the performance management system. Organizations who dont emphasize on the effectiveness of performance management system fails to understand the importance of employee involvement and all those benefits resulting for the employer as well as for the employee. For a company to be a success in the long run, a well designed and implemented performance management system should exist in the organization.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 660 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Single Parent Essay Did you like this example? Some social influences include diminished social capital for children, education, social economic factors, possible health and psychological concerns, the banning of fathers, and abuse of mothers. This article provides the reasons of why single parents kids struggle the most in finding success. Applications will be presented that describe impacts of single-parent households on general society. Issues will be offered that present an impression of the welfares of the single-parent household. A inference will be existing that supports the need for upcoming research into each of the variables composing the single-parent home. The Single-Parent Household The number of single-parent families in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s. Moreover, the fastest growing family type in the United States is the single-parent family, which by 2010 established about 30 percent of all families with offspring, according to the 2012 US Census Statistical Abstract. Single-mother households with children signified more than 8 million homes or approximately 79 percent of single-parent families. In addition, the number of single-father households more than tripled between the time of 1980 and 2010. In 1980, single-father families made up roughly 2 percent of all families with offspring, with less than 700,000 households. By 2010, the number of single-father homes had reached 2.2 million, or about 6 percent of relations with offspring. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Single Parent Household: Where Does the Problem Begin?" essay for you Create order Children are incapable of choosing the circumstances of their childhood and adolescence. It is where ever they are birthed where they will find their own opportunities. Moreover, In researching the multiple impacts of the single-parent family, researchers have assessed the implications of parental achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, social competence, and health (p. 289) They further concluded that children and adolescents from single-parent households demonstrated higher propensity toward psychiatric disease, suicide or suicide attempt, injury and addiction contrasted with those in two-parent households. Specifically, boys in single-parent families had higher risks than girls for psychiatric disease and drug-related disease, and they also had a raised risk of all-cause mortality. Additional research indicates that the multiple impacts of single-parent households on children are many and multifaceted. Effect on Social Capital In addition, Findings were reported, they argued that the most prominent element of structural deficiency in modern families is the single-parent family. In his research, they identified the ideal situations in which social principal is collected in relation to family condition. He suggested that a number of influences linked to the industrialization and modernization of societies meant that the family in its modern form is low in social capital when compared with formations in earlier times (Seaman Sweeting, 2004, p. 175). To initiate further understanding, social capital has been described as a characteristic of the relations between people (Seaman Sweeting, 2004, p. 174). Social capital advantages occur when trust and mutuality allow for access to resources such as human and cultural capital that already exist within the community or social network. Bourdieu described social capital as both a quality and quantity of relationships: first, the social relationship itself that allow s individuals to claim access to resources controlled by their associates, and second, the amount and quality of these resources In this understanding, social capital is something controlled by individuals that gains its strength in the aggregate of social networks (Seamen Sweeting, 2004, p. 174). Research into social principal and young commons outcomes also emphases on education. They presented data showing higher school drop-out rates for pupils with a single parent, several siblings and no maternal college expectations (Seamen Sweeting, 2004, p. 176). The Two-Parent Family Advantage Adolescents who receive parenting that simultaneously protects them from neighborhood dangers and cultivates opportunities outside the neighborhood can avoid negative outcomes. Through providing adolescents with consistent expressive support and discipline, effective supervision, and close expressive ties, unified families can often overcome district are disadvantages. Moreover, Saylor, Boyce, and Price (2003) indicated that family variables in the first months of a kids life including low income, single-parent home, and high parenting stress were significantly correlated with conduct problems appearing at 7.5 years of age (p. 175, Abstract). Its concluded that having two parents could help with lowering this percentage and lowering the later behavior some kids have.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In my reaction to the article about Mrs. PeltonÃ¢â¬â¢s biology class cheating, I believe that the school district was in the wrong by making Mrs. Pelton change her grading. The town of Piper, Kansas is only about 20 minutes away from Kansas City; I am from Olathe, Kansas which is about 30 minutes away from Kansas City. Both of these cities are suburbs of Kansas City but with two different ways they handle parents complaining about teachers. These so called parents in this article demanded the school board is to change the way teachers grade their classes. Mrs. Pelton was a teacher at Piper High School in Piper, KS. She taught a biology class which had a long term assessment that included collecting samples from trees in the local area and writing a report on what they have found. Pelton was very adamant about students not plagiarizing. She made both parents and students sign a contract which outlined in rule number seven Ã¢â¬ËCheating and plagiarism will result in the failure of the assignment. It is expected that all work turned in is completely their own.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mrs. Pelton even went on record saying what her version of plagiarism is Ã¢â¬ËIt is copying things word for word and using it as your own material.Ã¢â¬â¢ When the end of the school year came around students started to hand in their assessments. Mrs. Pelton notices that the students have handed assessment that were not fully their own work. She wanted to back up her accusations by turning to website called Ã¢â¬Å"Turnitin.com a new Web
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: What Is The Contemporary Issues In Accounting Conceptual? Answer: Introduction JetStar is considered as a brand of Qantas Airways, which is known to be supreme in the low-cost airline operating division in Australia. It is responsible for carrying more than 8.5% of passengers alone in the country. The main operations are seen to extend from home to international network with its destined airport in Melbourne. The main tie-ups have been identified in terms of Airbus A320 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner (Qantas.com. 2017). Virgin Australia Airline established in 1999 is considered as the predecessor of Qantas Airways. The main operation of the airline company is based in Bowen Hills in Brisbane. The main operations of the aircraft are seen to be based on a single route. So far Virgin Australia has been able to expand itself across 29 cities including some of the most noted one such as Brisbane, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney (Virginaustralia.com. 2017). The main intention of the study is to show the current accounting framework and examine whether the current accounting standards comply with the requirement prescribed by AASB. The report has also check whether for the companys financial reporting shows the conceptualization of prudence. The important source to consider the evaluation has been done based on intangible assets, tangible assets, the precision method and various findings from the annual general meeting report. The latter part of the study has been able to highlight on the reason of shareholders investing in the companies Conceptual framework of Accounting for both the companies Both JetStar and Virgin Australia Airlines compliance with the conceptual framework has been identified with AASB and Corporations Act 2001. The financial statements of both the companies are further seen to be prepared as per IFRS norms. The aforementioned standards have been seen to be issued by the International Accounting Board. In the progression of the financial statements of both Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia Airlines it has been discerned that they have followed historical cost evaluation except in areas where assets and liabilities needs to be assessed at fair value. The exception is in further noted in areas where these are considered as per accounting policies. The revenue recognitions conceptual framework has been prepared with per AASB 118 Revenue, AASB 111 Construction Contracts and Interpretation 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes. Despite of this, the companies are set to replace the standards with AASB 15 Revenue from contracts with the customers in the annual report of the company on or after 1st January 2018. The main determination of the existing AASB 117 for leases and revise the framework based on AASB 16. AASB 136: Impairment of Assets has been further noted to be applicable for impairment of assets and the financial guarantees are taken into consideration as per AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Prudence theory applied in both the companies The general theory of application of prudence has been seen to overestimate the amount of revenues. Both the airline companies have been seen to apply the concept of prudence in their financial reporting. This particular aspect is evident with the conservative nature of asset recording and non-underestimation of the liabilities. The financial statements has been further seen to be based on private transactions and considered every aspect of prudence theory. The delay in the acceptability of the new accounting standards has further depicted compliance with this theory (Lipka 2013). It has been seen that the company has not adopted applied AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (AASB 15) and AASB 16 Leases (AASB 16), as it has not been able to get the viability of replacing the existing standards that is AASB 118 Revenue. The process of dealing the recognition of the new standards has been seen by setting their adoption date on or after 1 January 2018 for the revenues and on or after 1 January 2019 for the new standards of leases. Some of the other aspects of prudence has been identified with regular review of the assets and check the reason for declining values of these assets. Typically the most vital component of prudence with both the companies has been identified with not writing down of the fixed assets value (Berger 2016). Criteria followed for financial data Total Assets- Based on the annual report and analysis published by both the companies in 2016 it has been observed that the total assets of Qantas Airways were $ 17708 m in 2016. The total assets of Virgin Australia Airlines stood at $ 6886.9 m in 2016. In addition to this, the contingent liabilities have not seen to be present for Virgin Australia airlines as at 30 June 2016. With respect to Qantas Airways Ltd the total amount of assets has been seen to be measured based on fair value less selling cost. The different types of net benefits of Qantas Airways have been further measured as a fair value of plant assets less the present value. Some of the various types of different considerations in the preparation of financial statements of Virgin Australia have been based on assets which are held under financial leases and recognised as per fair value (Rossing 2013). Tangible Assets and Intangible Assets- The various types of considerations for tangible and intangible assets for Qantas Airways has been classified under revenue generation and the total recoverable amount of the same. The considerations of intangible assets are further seen to be based on impairment losses less cost. The different types of methods for determining the amortisation has been further seen to consider that the useful life and residual life is evaluated as at reporting date. Assets having indefinite lives are not held for consideration as impairment is done on annual basis (Krieger and Mayrhofer 2016). Depreciation Qantas Group has recognised reputation as per straight-line method for its valuation of property plant and equipment. The exception is seen to prevail for freehold land. The deposition rates imposed on these assets are seen to be calculated on total valuation costs, the residual lives and the estimated useful lives. The aforementioned depreciation rates on the assets are charged on the date of acquisition. The particular assets which are held under financial leases and appreciated provided the company is having the ownership (Wang and Li 2015). Virgin Airlines has taken into consideration the amortisation of the assets based on date they are held for sale. The specific depreciation charged on PPE has been further seen to state cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Similar to Qantas Airways the deposition of assets for Virgin Airlines is also seen to be considered on straight-line method for determining its useful life of assets (Qantas.com.au. 2017). Rationale for the shareholders investing in the companies The main considerations of the directors statement have been able to show the reason why an investor should look forward to invest in both the companies. It is an further seen that based on the report published by Virgin Airlines, the revenue of the company has jumped from$4,749.2 million to $5,021.0 million. The comparative period for the total equity has been able to account for 60% of the profits accumulated from Tigerair Australia on 16 October 2014. The investors need to particularly be aware of the increasing net operating expenditure which is considered as a downside for Virgin airlines. The aforementioned consideration has been seen to be conducive in making investment decision in both the airline companies (Kober, Lee and Ng 2013). In a similar way based on the CEOs statement published by Qantas Airways in 2016 it has been determined that the group has been significantly able to contribute to the overall value. The net increase in the financial performance has been evident with the increasing operating margin which has been further recognised in terms of increasing operating margin from the Jetstar Group, Qantas Loyalty, Qantas International and Qantas Domestic. It has been further observed that more than two thirds of the total earnings of Qantas Airways are based on the international operations, loyalty programs and portfolio strategy. The investors should be particularly looking forward to the increasing PBT of $ 975 m in 2015 to $ 1532 in 2016. Based on the financial report analysis of both the companies, it has been seen that Jetstar (Qantas) is not only in better position in compared to Virgin Australia airlines but it is also cost efficient which makes it a better choice for the investor (Guthrie and Pan g 2013). Conclusion The various stages of discussions of the study have been able to state current accounting framework of Qantas Airways and Virgin Airlines. The report has been further able to examine whether the current accounting standards comply with the requirement prescribed by AASB. The report has also check whether for the companys financial reporting shows the conceptualization of prudence. JetStar and Virgin Australia Airlines compliance with the conceptual framework has been identified with AASB and Corporations Act 2001. Both the airline companies have been seen to apply the concept of prudence in their financial reporting. This particular aspect is evident with the conservative nature of asset recording and non-underestimation of the liabilities. The delay in the acceptability of the new accounting standards has further depicted compliance with the prudence theory. The investors should be particularly looking forward to the increasing PBT of $ 975 m in 2015 to $ 1532 in 2016 for Qantas. References Berger, L. (2016) The impact of ambiguity and prudence on prevention decisions, Theory and Decision, 80(3), pp. 389409. doi: 10.1007/s11238-015-9512-1. Guthrie, J. and Pang, T. T. (2013) Disclosure of goodwill impairment under aasb 136 from 2005-2010, Australian Accounting Review, 23(3), pp. 216231. doi: 10.1111/j.1835-2561.2013.00204.x. Kober, R., Lee, J. and Ng, J. (2013) GAAP, GFS and AASB 1049: Perceptions of public sector stakeholders, Accounting and Finance, 53(2), pp. 471496. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-629X.2012.00469.x. Krieger, M. and Mayrhofer, T. (2016) Prudence and prevention: an economic laboratory experiment, Applied Economics Letters, pp. 16. doi: 10.1080/13504851.2016.1158909. Lipka, D. (2013) The max U approach: Prudence only, or not even prudence? A Smithian perspective, Econ Journal Watch, 10(1), pp. 214. Qantas.com. (2017).Our Company | Qantas. [online] Available at: https://www.qantas.com/travel/airlines/company/global/en [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017]. Qantas.com.au. (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.qantas.com.au/infodetail/about/corporateGovernance/2016AnnualReport.pdf [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017]. Rossing, J. P. (2013) Prudence and Racial Humor: Troubling Epithets, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31(4), pp. 115. doi: 10.1080/15295036.2013.864046. Wang, J. and Li, J. (2015) Precautionary Effort: Another Trait for Prudence, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 82(4), pp. 977983. doi: 10.1111/jori.12054. Virginaustralia.com. (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.virginaustralia.com/cs/groups/internetcontent/@wc/documents/webcontent/~edisp/2016-asx-financial-report.pdf [Accessed 11 Aug. 2017].
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Introduction Population ageing refers to the aspect of a society in which the number of the elderly people past the retirement age is continually increasing with respect to the total population. An ageing population is normally characterized by increased percentage of the categorized older people in a given society. This paper seeks to discuss the topic of population ageing in Canada.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Population Ageing in Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The paper will look into aspects of population ageing in Canada in terms of its causes and impacts as well as policies that should be considered in order to alleviate possible problems that the population ageing may cause in Canada. The Canadian Demography The structure of the Canadian demography is majorly determined by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s aspects of birth rate, mortality rates, life expectancy, emigration from the country and immigrations into the country. The birth rate and the total period fertility are statistical projections calculated from past records of a society. The two elements describe the average number of children that is expected of a woman in her lifetime. The trend in birth rate in Canada can be categorically described in three groups due to the similarity in past and projected patterns that is realized. The birth rates of women between the ages of twenty and twenty seven has a characteristic decreasing trend in the past observed data with a similarly decreasing trend which is almost stagnant in the projected statistics. The category of women ranging from twenty eight years old to thirty two years has experienced a decreasing trend in birth rate which however picked up in the year 2005 and is projected to increase in future. The other category is the age group of thirty three to thirty nine years who have experienced an increasing past trend in birth rate and a corresponding increasing projection in the future periods of time. The total period fertility of the country registered a decreasing trend up to the year 2001 before rising until the year 2010 with further projected increase. The average birth rate has been significantly low, decreasing from 1.7 percent in the early 1990s to almost one percent in the year 2003 before slightly increasing (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). The Canadian population is recorded to have a fair balance in terms of gender. The death rates in Canada also exhibit a trend that slightly varies across different ages. The death rate in Canada has fairly been constant at the age group of between thirty to thirty nine years. This rate is also projected to remain constant.Advertising Looking for essay on aging? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Age group between forty to fifty nine years has averagely experienced a reduced death rate which is projected to decrease over the future. However, the older generati on has over the past experienced a fluctuating death rate which retained the general decreasing tendency with a smoothly decreasing projection. The average death rate is significantly noted to be relatively higher in males than in females. The life expectancy in the country has on the other hand been constantly increasing with a corresponding increase in its projections. It is again notable that the life expectancy is relatively higher in women than in men through out the considered statistics (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). Emigration of Canadians as well as the number of those returning from foreign countries has been slightly fluctuating in the past years at less that two percent with a prediction of constant percentage figures. Immigration into the country has been oscillating with convergence to 0.7 percent at which it is projected to stabilize in future. The Canadian population is therefore identified to be majorly dependent on the birth rate and the life expectancy which is a fact or to mortality rate. The reduced birth rate towards the end of the twentieth century together with the generally increasing life expectancy reflects a threat to a shift in the demographic structure of the country with the tendency of an ageing population (Dungan and Murphy, 2010). Possible causes of the Ageing population in Canada The major determinants of the Canadian economy are identified to be the birth rate and the mortality rate with life expectancy determining the structure of the population. Studies under economics have revealed a paradox that contrary to the perception that improved national economies which is reflected in living standards and conditions should encourage and support higher rate of population increase, it has been noted that wealthy countries have been characterized by reduced number of children. It is recorded that the birth rates in developed countries have over the past years reduced from about eight percent to almost one percent in the current periods. This together with the increased life expectancy is significantly transforming the demographic patterns of these countries. A comparison of demographics indicates a transition in the structure and composition of populations.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Population Ageing in Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Four decades ago, the human development index was generally low across the globe with the highest possibly being realized in Canada at almost 0.9. The trend in Canada is realized to be characterized by reduced fertility rate under its high human development index. With the low fertility rates of almost one percent, the population of Canada is threatened by significant reduction since the rate is relatively lower that the mortality rates. The reduced birth rate has been a result of women empowerment that has witnessed their active engagement in employment activities. As a consequence, women moved to c ontrol their birth rates as a step to adjusting in their active role in economic activities. The result of the controlled birth rate is a shrinking population characterized by a relatively lower percentage of the young people in the country (Economist, 2009). Impacts of Ageing Population in Canada Population trend in Canada and many other developed countries has also shifted in terms of its relevance to the economies. In the early periods and up to the mid times of nineteenth century, when a number of countries started to introduce pension schemes, the life expectancies in variety of countries were generally low and people rarely reached old age. This view represented societies where every one was actively participating in the economy. The imminent impacts of the demographic change include the general reduction of the total population and the emergence of an economically less active population. The reduced population will as a result reduce the labor force in the economy leading to labor shortage. The shift in the population pattern also has the effect of reducing labor supply as the majority of the population will be too old to work, or even if they are fixed into the economy, they will not effectively yield the output that could have been realized from a younger employee. The impacts have not yet been felt, though expected to heavily impact the economy if no action is taken to avert the situation. Another significant problem is the expenditure on the elderly who will be economically passive and will depend on either governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s pension schemes or on family members for support (The Economist, 2009). Possible Policies to Alleviate Impacts of Ageing Population One of the possible measures of averting the imminent labor shortage in the future Canada, and any other country faced with the problem of an ageing population, is the importation of labor by encouraging immigration.Advertising Looking for essay on aging? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Solution could also be achieved through developing policies that will encourage women to have more children to increase the population of the young as well as recycling retirees into the economy (Economist, 2009). Conclusion The ageing population is evident in Canada. Caused by reduced birth rate and increased life expectancy, the changed demography is a threat to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and necessary policies should be adopted to avert future labor shortage in Canada. References Dungan, P and Murphy, S. (2010). A Population Projection for Canada with an Updated Application to Health Care Expenditures. Toronto: University of Toronto. Economist. (2009). The best of all the world. The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/node/14164483/print?story_id=14164483 The Economist. (2009). The end of retirement. The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/node/13900145/print?story_id=13900145 This essay on Population Ageing in Canada was written and submitted by user Anderson Everett to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis Introduction A number of studies have carried out on the economic impact of international sporting events. The Goldman Sachs recently carried out a study to evaluate the economic impact of the Olympics. The researchers attempted to develop the relationship between economics, markets and the games.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This relationship was aimed at coming up with a prediction of the medals table. In their research, they found out that the host nations gain a lot by hosting the games. The results of the researchers established that the host nations gain in the areas of political stability, human capital, technology, and both micro and macro economic environment. The stock market of such countries also gains significantly (The Goldman Sachs, 2012). This works attempts to carry out similar regression analysis in order to validate the result s of the Goldman Sachs. A lot of emphasis will be put on developing a regression equation that will be used to predict the medals table. The analysis carried out by the Goldman Sachs As mentioned above, the Goldman Sachs came up with a model to predict the results of the Olympics. The researchers used the concept of panel regression to come up with an equation that can predict the Olympic results for the various nations that attended the games. Panel data regression is carried out on data collected on the same individual over different time periods (Greene, 2003). The explanatory variables used in the analysis were; the population of various countries, a host dummy, medal attainment, and GDP (measured by the growth environment scores).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this paper, the same variables in exclusion of a host dummy will be used in the estimation of t he regression line. Besides, a linear regression line will be generated from the sample of 50 countries. The table presented below shows the results of the regression carried out. Coefficients Intercept -24.9956 Change in medals 0.784612 GES score 6.529764 Population (measures in millions) 0.046876 From the results of regression analysis presented above, the regression line will take the form Y = -24.9956 + 0.784612X1 + 6.529764X2 + 0.046876X3. The linear regression model above can be used to estimate the number of medals that a nation will earn during an Olympics game. Further, all the 50 nations that were used in the Goldman Sachs research were used in this analysis. None of the nation was omitted. Analysis of the results The results of the regression show that countries with high GES score will earn more medals than countries with low medals. This result is shown by the positive relationship between the GES score and the number of medals earned by the country. The graph presented below shows the scatter diagram that displays the relationship between the number of gold attained by the various countries and the GES score. Based on the scatter diagram above, there exists a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This gives an indication that nations that are economically endowed are likely to earn more medals than countries with less economic resources.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, the results show that countries that host the games earn a higher number of medals than the other countries. This was the case observed in China. In summary, the results show that a large number of medals will go to countries that have a high GDP and a great potential for growth. Further, the model estimated in this paper is not consistent with the model predicted by the Goldman Sachs. They yield differ ent results. References Greene, W. (2003). Econometric analysis. Harlow: PrenticeÃ¢â¬âHall. The Goldman Sachs. (2012). The olympics and economics 2012. Web.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Financial Markets & Risk - Essay Example iness Council for Sustainable Development defines CSR as the business commitment and contribution to the quality of life of employees, their families and the society overall, to support sustainable development. In recent years, CSR has been incorporated into the business strategy of a majority of the companies and firms in UK and all over the world. This is because of a variety of considerations that have developed in recent years making it an essential component for the success of any business. Altruistic CSR involves contributing to the common good at the possible, probable, or even definite expense of the business. It may be humanitarian, or philanthropic. Humanitarian CSR involves firms to go beyond preventing or rectifying harms they have done to assuming liability for public welfare deficiencies that they have not caused. This type of CSR is relatively rare. Strategic CSR is done to accomplish strategic business goals Ã¢â¬â good deeds are believed to be good for business as well as society. With this, corporations give back to their constituencies because it is in their best financial interests to do so. This is philanthropy aligned with profit motives. Social goals are found profitable in the long run since market forces provide financial incentives for perceived socially responsible behaviour. CSR is also a positive business driven response to the business environment of today. It is not an add-on. CSR is not static. It is a dynamic, multidimensional concept covering social, economic and environmental concerns, and is continually evolving with the diversity of the market. Innovation is a critical aspect of CSR initiatives. CSR is not an alternative to regulation. CSR is voluntary in nature. It has become imperative for businesses today to incorporate CSR in their business activities. Apart from the pressures from various directions, there are several reasons that companies find CSR initiatives beneficial for them. Rapid political, economic and