Saturday, December 28, 2019
People chose all behavior and including all criminal behavior. Which in this case the choices that criminals make brings them pleasure and adrenaline. Criminal choices can be controlled by fear of punishment, but not all the time. The crime will be limited when the benefits are reduced and the costs increase. Rational choice theory is a perspective that holds criminality in the result of conscious choice. Not to mention, that it is predicted that individuals choose to commit crime when the benefits outweigh the costs of disobeying the law. In the rational choice theory, individuals are seen as motivated offenders by their needs, wants and goals that express their preferences. This theory has been applied to a wide of range in crime, such as robbery, drug use, vandalism, and white collar crime. Furthermore, rational choice theory had a revival in sociology in the early 1960s, under the heading of exchange theory, and by the end of the decade was having a renewed influence in criminolo gy, first as control theory and later as routine activities theory. Rational choice theory addresses, criminal behavior in various ways. In addition, this theory also falls short in many places. I have decided to work on the rational theory because it is a common theory that I see on a day to day base. I feel that anyone who breaks the law should be held responsible and not be rewarded with such a low punishment. If our criminal justice system enforces stricter punishments than those who areShow MoreRelatedThe Rational Choice and Biological Trait Theories Essay1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCriminals have been committing crimes for centuries, and they are always fooling the police detectives and federal agencies sometimes. If the justice departments would actually look at the persons thought processes and reasoning before a crime is committed, the justice departments will be able to answer the reason for the crime. The different departments could possibly figure out why the criminal did what they did in the first. For instance, they should use a couple o f criminology theories to helpRead MoreRational Choice Theory: Merits and Limitations1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinsight into Rational Choice Theory. This theory, highly relied upon by many disciplines, is also used to calculate and determine crime and criminal behavior. Through definition, example and techniques utilized by criminologists, the reader will have a better understanding of the subject. By definition, criminology is the study of crime, criminal behavior and how it pertains to the law. Criminology is considered a scientific technique. Therefore, those who study and carry out its theories are consideredRead MoreRational Choice vs. Trait Theory Essay1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRational Choice Theory VS. Trait Theory Student Name Criminology : Park University Online Program In this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the Rational Choice Theory(s) and the Trait Theory(s). We will start with the history of the two theories and progress toward some of the individual principles in the theories. Next step will be explaining how each theory contributes to criminal behavior. My closing paragraph will concludeRead MoreSimilarities and Differences in Sociological Theories of Crime890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSimilarities and Differences in Sociological Theories of Crime Walden University Similarities and Differences in Sociological Theories of Crime Sociological theories of crime contain a great deal of useful information in the understanding of criminal behavior. Sociological theories are very useful in the study of criminal behavior because unlike psychological and biological theories they are mostly macro level theories which attempt to explain rates of crime for a group or an area ratherRead MoreRational Choice Theory Criminology1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCriminology, Prof. Boldt has either talked about or brought up a few dozen theories in just a few weeks. However one theory seems to show up more than the others, and is the more dominant explanation in describing criminal behavior. This concept is referred to as Rational Choice Theory. Over time theories have been produced to explain and help understand what leads to criminal behavior. The reason why people have studied these theories so closely is because of the helpful nature it provides to professionalsRead MoreRational Choice Theory: Criminology901 Words Ã |Ã 4 P agesChoice theory was born out of the perspective of crime causation which states that criminality is the result of conscious choice. This theory is also known as the rational choice theory. According to this theory, the choice whether or not to commit a criminal act is the result of a rational thought process that weighs the risks of paying the costs of committing a crime, against the benefits obtained. In other words, if the benefits--monetary or otherwise--outweigh the risks of sustaining the costsRead MoreRational Choice Theory as a Deterant to Crime Essay622 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWritten Assignment 1 (Due October 1st ) Rational choice theories are among the fastest growing theories in social science today. Many sociologists and political scientists defend the claim that rational choice theory can provide the basis for a unified and comprehensive theory of social behavior. What distinguishes rational choice theory from other forms of theory is that it denies the existence of any kinds of action other than the purely rational and calculative. All social action can be seenRead MoreContemporary Utilization Of Classical Perspective1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDeterrence theory, rational choice theory, routine activities theory, and lifestyle theory will be explained and defined thoroughly detailing each theory and provide a historical background, theorist(s) involved, prior literature, scientific methods, results, personal opinions, and policy implications for each theory. These theories are still being utilized in law enforcement in present day enforcement of laws and policies and this paper will descri be an in-depth explanation of the theories. CrimeRead MoreThe Classical School Of Thought889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs early as the 18th century, theorists have hypothesized the reasons behind criminal behavior. Theorists during the Enlightenment Period dismissed the preconceived notions that deviant behavior was the result of supernatural causes and ushered in an era that highlighted criminality as a rational choice decided by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own free will. The idea of rational choice led to the development of the Classical school of thought, which sought to deter and prevent crime by making the fear of punishmentRead MoreTheories of Crime Causation Essay example1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMajor Theories of Crime Causation Robert Lincoln CJ 102-02 Kaplan University August 4, 2013 Major Theories of Crime Causation Various units contain a number of theories that try to explain the causes of crime in the society. The theories have been developed to have an in-depth understanding of the crime and how best they can be addressed to ensure that humans live in a conducive environment. These units and theories have been around and in use from as early as the twentieth century. Over
Friday, December 20, 2019
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlighted in its 5th Assessment Report both the unequivocal warming and apparent human influence on the climate system. Anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change was proven by the increasing atmospheric concentration of the greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, and observation over warming and the climate system. It is also emphasized that to reduce changes in the climate system will require substantial and continuous reductions of greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC, 2014). Climate change is perceived as a critical problem or external shock for many sociotechnical systems. This problem forces response from the system to adapt, which leads to resilience (maintaining the status quo),Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Transformational adaptation typically deals with changes or innovation in technology, but it is also common that the changes are behavioral shift or cultural change, which affect the way individuals and community react to the climate change issue (Kates et al., 2012, OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, K., 2012). The term Ã¢â¬ËradicalÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËtransformationalÃ¢â¬â¢ will be used interchangeably in this essay. This essay begins with an extensive description of characteristic of radical change and followed by discussion of the preference to enforce radical than incremental change to tackle the impact of climate change, both sections including specific examples from the previous or current adaptation strategy employed in some regions across the world. Shortly after, radical change which applied through the case of technological change will be explained separately. The last part of the essay will briefly discuss difficulties in implementation of radical change and practical steps to be considered during the implementation phase. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn based on the overall essay discussion. 2. Characteristic of radical change Kates et al. (2012, p. 7156) defines three classes of transformational adaptation, which are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. The later section will concisely discuss each class, followed by an example of each class. 1)
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Integrating Annotated Bibliography. Answer: Introduction This article is elaborating about the utilization of Swarm robots in the field of rescue and searching operations. In addition to this, this article is the utilization of swarm robots is explained in this article by reviewing twelve articles about use of swarm robots in rescue operations. These reviews are providing an effective scenario to understand its utility. In addition to this, in one of part of this assignment the some descriptions about similarity report of this assignment is also elaborated. Ad Hoc Communication in Teams of Mobile Robots Using ZigBee Technology This article is written by four authors specialized in robotics and this article is elaborating about the Ad Hoc Communication in Teams of Mobile Robots Using ZigBee Technology (Fernandes et al., 2015). The mobile robots are being developed and manufactured in the institute of system robotics in order to utilize these robots in the domain of system and robotics. This journal is mainly explaining about the implementation process of hoc wireless functionalities within the robots in order use the robots in the field of rescue and investigation purposes. The authors are mainly focusing on the XBee original equipment Manufacturer Radio Frequency with the help of the standard Arduino commands within the field of rescue and searching operations. These functionalities introduce the feature that helps the users in identifying the protocols and other important characteristics that helps the robots in finding some creature or some things. The authors of this article are concentrating on the rec eived signal strength and other important features of the system that helps the user in getting the desired things to be found. Advanced swarm robots addressing innovative tasks such as assembly, search, rescue, mapping, communication, aerial and other original applications This article is written by one associate editor about the Advanced swarm robots addressing innovative tasks such as assembly, search, rescue, mapping, communication, aerial and other original applications (Bloss, 2014). The authors are focusing on the possible searches for using the robots rescuing the creatures or things within geographical domain of the robot. In addition to this, the purpose of the author is to focus on various worldwide projects that help to develop and apply innovative swarm type robots for the challenging applications. The author of this article is concentrating on the manufacturing of swarm robots that helps in searching the physical structure around the geographical domain of the system related to the robot. Practical implementations of these robots are very important to be considered in this article, not only the manufacturings of robots are elaborated in this article but also the uses of system are also being elaborated in this article. In comparison with o ther system architecture, the cost structures for these technological advancements are also elaborated in this article. Algorithm for Movement of Swarm Robots This article is focusing on the Algorithmic movement of the robots for utilizing the robot for search and rescue operations within contemporary system architecture of robotics. the authors has been stated in this article that higher level of operational excellence is achieved with the help of robots (Rakesh, 2012). The robots give effective and accurate outputs in comparison with the manual operations. This article is elaborating about the swarm intelligence principles that help the robots in collaborating with other autonomous or non- autonomous creature in the technical domains. This article is mainly focusing on the use of artificial intelligence for the use of swarm robots in finding things or any other physical obstacle. The use of swarm intelligence is helpful for finding the optimized path. A chain of multiple robots needs to be managed for with the help of common path identification. This paper is elaborating about the nest robot that uses proposed methods for searching any o bstacles. Faulty robot rescue by multi-robot cooperation This paper is elaborating about the multi agent behavior of the robots in the domain of immediate responses for the finding some obstacle or physical structure within the geographical domain considered in case of any robot (Eoh et al., 2013). In addition to this fact, the authors of this paper are elaborating about the sound signal that helps in identifying the faulty robots among a group of robots. In contrast with this fact, the authors of this paper is stated that the for the rescue mission of any faulty robot, the sound localization techniques should have to be first prepared and then the sound source is estimated, which is coming from the faulty robot. In addition to this, a faulty robot cannot be found with the help of a single robot in the geographical domain of any group of robot. This can only be possible with the help of a set of robots within their working domain. The interactive communication is one of the most effective elements that helps the robot in finding the faulty robot. The global positioning is taken into consideration in case of finding the faulty robot. Finding the optimal location and allocation of relay robots for building a rapid end-to-end wireless communication This article is elaborating about the searching of optimal positioning of swarm robots for making an optimal wireless communication network (Mina et al., 2016). The authors of this article are focusing on the fundamental principle of end-to-end wireless communication that is formed with the help of relay condition that helps to make interaction between the network domains. In addition to this, according to the author, the formulation of end to end communication problems identified for the consumers are identified and then the issues involved within this case is identified. According to the authors, the antenna and robots internal and operational functionalities are very important to be considered in this case of finding other physical obstacles in between the path of them. This journal is concentrating on the constraints that are involved into the propagation of radio signals as well as which are infeasible with respect to the location of the robots. The authors are elaborating about the optimization technique that helps the robots in conducting several simulations for finding the exact way of interactions between the robots. Integrating Arduino-Based Educational Mobile Robots in ROS This article is elaborating about the Integrating Arduino-Based Educational Mobile Robots in ROS (Araujo et al., 2015). In addition to this, the authors of this journal are elaborating about the complete integration process of educational mobile robotic platform build around an Arduino controller board. This Arduino board is capable of providing the support to the Robot Operating System in order to find the some obstacles in between the path of robot. The hardware abstraction and intuitive model is included in to the system architecture of the robot functionalities in order to grab the position changes of the system architecture. The authors mainly focused on the multi robot surveillance or swarm robotics. The robot is enabled with the help of several tools and data analysis capabilities for making it intractable. Merging the fields of swarm robotics and new media: Perceiving swarm robotics as new media This article is elaborating about the Merging the fields of swarm robotics and new media: Perceiving swarm robotics as new media (Ivanova et al., 2017). The authors of this journal are elaborating the evidences from the swarm robotics. These evidences are considered as the swarm robotics elements. In addition to this, the new proposal The Language of New Media is elaborated in this article. The article is mainly recognized for the in depth comparison of the characteristics between the two types of robots. The media installations are combined in this article in order to make an effective comparison. The comparison in between these two aspects includes the new way of inventing the swarm robotics within the system architecture of new media. PSO-Based Robot Path Planning for Multisurvivor Rescue in Limited Survival Time This article is elaborating about PSO-Based Robot Path Planning for Multisurvivor Rescue in Limited Survival Time. The swarm robotics is used in these segments for making the system for finding some particular obstacle (Geng et al., 2014). In addition to this, the authors of this article are concerned with the urgent and dangerous segments or circumstances. The robot is made with this concern that it will be capable of sensing the circumstance and that will be helpful in rescuing some particular thing or person with optimal way possible. The authors have elaborated in this article that at first the discrete optimization of path selection according to the destination of the robot is done. The obstacle in the path of robot is concerned with their high probability constraint. These constraints play a great role in finding the most easy path for the robot. Radial and Sigmoid Basis Function Neural Networks in Wireless Sensor Routing Topology Control in Underground Mine Rescue Operation Based on Particle Swarm Optimization This article is focusing on the sigmoid based functions that are incorporating creative and controlling topology for underground rescue operations significant for the wireless network sensing technology that specifies the root or path for the swarm robots (Ansong et al., 2013). The sigmoid functions are utilized for sensing the sequences of the obstacles are coming in front of the swarm robots. This aspect makes the robot more sensitive. The authors of this article is elaborating about the mathematical calculations based on sigmoid functions, radial functions that helps the robot in choosing their way of movement. Search and Rescue using Swarm Robots This article is elaborating about the rescue and searching operations involved within robot operations. In addition to this, the author of this article is concerned about the mobile robot applications in the domain of searching and rescuing obstacles (Rahmani, 2013). The author of this article is concerned about the semi-autonomous exploration of space as well as the underwater exploration. In addition to this, the authors have stated that mobile robots are also used for rescuing the people and things in natural disasters occurred. These are the most specific and important functional operation of mobile robots that highlights the use of robots. Training platform for rescue robot operation and pair operations of multi-robots This article is focusing on the Training platform for rescue robot operation and pair operations of multi-robots (Shimizua Takahashib, 2013). In addition to this, the significant research of the authors of the article has been highlighted two perspectives related to robotics; working of robots with the help of workers and multi robot operations. All of these aspects are important to the rescue and searching operations with respect to swarm robots. The platform based unifies system and robot simulations are main concerns for the robotics or robot operations. Rescue operations sometimes involve multiple robots at a time that should be managed with the help of signified approaches. Vision-Controlled Micro Flying Robots This article is focusing on the vision controlled micro flying robots. The author of this article is focusing on the concept of flying robots (Scaramuzza et al., 2014). These robots are used for various purposes for rescue operations and other functional requirements in searching finding operations. In comparison with other technical advancement in the robotics this type of evolution is not cost effective enough as there are various technologies that are supporting this evolution; all of these involves a huge amount of cost within the development of the system architecture. There are some bold and colored text is getting highlighted in the self check report. Most of these colored and bold texts are the journal name. Yes there are bold and colored texts in my plagiarism report that has more than three words those are copied from original source. Most of these are highlighted for the name of the journal name and some of them are in the body of the assignment. No there are no direct statement those took more than 10% of the essay except the journal names. There are no colored and bold texts in my assignment except the journal name. There are no short strings that are similar and showing my bad paraphrasing skills in the assignment, except the journal names. Yes I have synthesized all information from the original source and these are combined with my own comments within it. Conclusion This report is providing a detailed description about the rescue operations with the help of swarm robots. This aspect has been elaborated in this report by reviewing twelve articles. In addition to this, the similarity report is also taken into consideration in this report. In the task two some questions are answered in order to judge the similarity report. References Ansong, M., Yao, H., Huang4, J. (2013). Radial and Sigmoid Basis Function Neural Networks in Wireless Sensor Routing Topology Control in Underground Mine Rescue Operation Based on Particle Swarm Optimization. Araujo, A., Portugal, D., Couceiro, M., Rocha, R. (2015). Integrating Arduino-Based Educational Mobile Robots in ROS, 281-298. Bloss, R. (2014). Advanced swarm robots addressing innovative tasks such as assembly, search, rescue, mapping, communication, aerial and other original applications.Emerald,41(5), 408-412. Eoh, G., Choi, J., Lee, B. (2013). Faulty robot rescue by multi-robot cooperation,31, 1239-1249. Fernandes, A., Couceiro, M., Portugal, D., Santos, J., Rocha, R. (2015). Ad Hoc Communication in Teams of Mobile Robots Using ZigBee Technology. Geng, N., Gong, D., Zhang, Y. (2014). PSO-Based Robot Path Planning for Multisurvivor Rescue in Limited Survival Time.Mathematical Problems In Engineering. Ivanova, M., Couceiro, M., Martins, F. (2017). Merging the fields of swarm robotics and new media: Perceiving swarm robotics as new media. (2014.Maejo International Journal Of Science And Technology,8(2), 143-180. Mina, B., Kima, Y., Leea, S., Jungb, J., Matsona, E. (2016). Finding the optimal location and allocation of relay robots for building a rapid end-to-end wireless communication.Elsevier,39, 23-44. Rahmani, M. (2013). Search and Rescue using Swarm Robots. Rakesh, S. (2012). Algorithm for Movement of Swarm Robots.International Journal Of Computer Applications,46(2), 975-8887. Scaramuzza, D., Achtelik, M., Doitsidis, L., Fraundorfer, F., Kosmatopoulos, E., Martinelli, A. et al. (2014). Vision-Controlled Micro Flying Robots. Shimizua, M. Takahashib, T. (2013). Training platform for rescue robot operation and pair operations of multi-robots,27(5), 385-391.